It focuses in particular on the contribution of Goethe and Fernow to landscape aesthetics and the use of staffage
figures, but also explores the wider repercussions of the Ramdohrstreit and the criticism of Caspar David Friedrich's early works on landscape painting.
21) Most interesting of all, perhaps, are Canaletto's complementary paintings of the Gloucestershire home of the Duke of Beaufort, Badminton House from the Park and Badminton Park, from the House [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 6 OMITTED]: "the compositions are simplified to daring extremes and the staffage
included as no more than an incidental element.
Wie gottlich ist diese Staffage
gewahlt, sie ist nicht wie bei den ordinaren Herrn Malem ein blofler MaBstab Rir die Hohe der Gegensfande, er ist die Sache selbst, er ist das Bild .
Peasant women working right at the back of the field, shown in small dimensions, and the expectantly waiting dog are staffage
figures; together with the wooden trough with fresh water gushing from it, they animate the foreground.
Bratkov's large photograph Untitled, 2006, showing a group of sunbathers during winter in the Pietropavlovskaya Fortress in Saint Petersburg, recalls Boris Mikhailov's satirical works, and perhaps even Ilya Repin's dramatic realism, but the artist uses the human figure more as sexualized staffage
than as a carrier of overt social or political messages.
If the Cardiff drawing is by Turner, then the amount of stippling it contains would suggest that its creator would have regarded it as a finished work (rather than a sketch or study),4 even though the foreground is fairly vague and there is no staffage
, for stippling only appears in Turner's watercolours when he takes them to an advanced stage of completion.
Instead, he resorted to artistic licence as regards scale, spatial relationships and the introduction of staffage
notwithstanding the various stage props and staffage
borrowed from the latter.
Agucchi, but he also created pure landscapes with staffage
This is a key picture in many ways, for it points to the princely level of patronage upon which Bellotto came to rely, to a more northern-orientated circle of patrons and to such characteristic elements of staffage
as the gilded coach, which became a staple part of the artist's vocabulary.
Collector's portraits offer endless entertainment as well as instruction: the 4th Earl of Carlisle with the huge cameo of Julia as Diana, Lord Dundas with the recumbent Vatican Cleopatra as staffage
, to which could be added numerous other Batonis: the 2nd Earl of Bessborough's portrait in the pose of the Apollo Belvedere might have been included, too, and the tale is well spiced with incidents such as Lord Hertford's buying a sarcophagus as a trough for his cows, or the Earl-Bishop's body being shipped home, crated as a statue, to spare the sailors' superstitious fears.
Moreover, if the staffage
reminds us of the kinds of figures found in his earlier work, they do also represent the people who worked on the Thames barges.