state school

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state school

any school maintained by the state, in which education is free

State School


a major trend in Russian bourgeois historiography in the second half of the 19th century. The exponents of the state school held that the supraclass state, which supposedly expressed the interests of society as a whole, was the main force in history. The term “juridical school,” which was also used, reflects the school’s predominant interest in juridical legislative material that was characteristic of the later exponents of the state school. The theoretical and philosophical basis of the state school was the reactionary side of G. Hegel’s idealist philosophy, with its apologia for monarchical government. In contrast to the historical school of S. M. Solov’ev, the state school represented a rejection by liberal bourgeois historiography of the idea that historical development occurs in conformity with natural laws.

The school’s founder, B. N. Chicherin, formulated the basic tenets of the state school at the end of the 1850’s: (1) the affirmation of the state as the driving force in Russian history, (2) the explanation of the state’s leading role in Russian history on the basis of natural conditions, and (3) following from these ideas, the counterposing of Russian history with the history of other peoples, especially those of Western Europe. These ideas were expressed in the collection Essays on the History of Russian Law (1858) and other works. The classic formula of the state school, “the enslavement and emancipation of the estates by the state.” was put forward as a definition of the social content of Russian history. The omnipotence of the state was explained by natural conditions: the steppe hindered the formation of stable societies and the people were presented as “solitary, wandering individuals” who were “lost in an immense, scarcely inhabited space.” The organizing role of the state, which created the estates and bound them to the service of the public interest, was set in opposition to these natural conditions. Chicherin believed that any changes could be effected only by the state. This conclusion reflected the striving of the Russian bourgeoisie for reforms that would be carried out by a strong authority capable of preventing a democratic revolution in the country. Chicherin’s theses were adopted by K. D. Kavelin, and at the end of the 1860’s V. I. Sergeevich became an adherent of the state school. Sergeevich substituted fixed juridical formulas and immutable juridical relationships for complex historical processes. Other followers of the state school included A. D. Gradovskii. 1. 1. Ditiatin. and many other bourgeois historians. The rejection of the principle of historical development in conformity with natural laws served as the basis for M. P. Pogodin’s rapprochement with the state school. Pogodin fully accepted its tenets in his later works, Ancient Russian History Prior to the Mongol Yoke (vols. 1–3. 1871). Some of the tenets of the state school were reflected in the works of S. M. Solov’ev. who accepted the thesis of “the enslavement and emancipation of the estates” in his later work but who nevertheless preserved to the end the fundamental principle of the unity of the inherent character of historical development governed by definite laws and the integral nature of this development.

Later exponents of the state school tried to relate their concepts to new, progressive phenomena in historical scholarship (the interest in problems of social and economic development) as represented by the work of V. O. Kliu-chevskii. However, on the whole the theses of the state school began to be employed at the end of the 19th century in the struggle against the consolidation of Marxist ideas in Russia. The best expression of this development was the work of P. N. Miliukov. The historians of the state school made a detailed study of political history and of the history of government institutions and laws, but they denied the very possibility of the unity of the world historical process. The theories of the state school at the beginning of the 20th century reflected the ever-deepening ideological and methodological crisis of Russian bourgeois historiography.


Ocherki istorii istoricheskoi nauki v SSSR. vol. 1–2. Moscow. 1955—60.
Rubinshtein. N. L. Russkaia istoriografiia. Moscow. 1941.


References in periodicals archive ?
However, what's really interesting is the overall number who have gained places at top universities from the state school system and then gone on to have successful careers that have enabled them to earn a fortune.
Nationwide pounds 919 million has been brought forward for projects across the state school system.
The president and board of the California State University system approved changes to the application process that will make it harder for students to get into the state school system, which remains one of the most affordable options in the state.
Francois Fillon, France's prime minister, said the government was prepared to consider some changes to the reforms but he said there was no question of cancelling the project, which the government said was aimed at making the state school system more effective.
Rather, in drafting these clauses, convention delegates were seeking to accomplish a series of specific tasks, such as establishing a state school system, specifying the level of schooling to be supported by the state, ensuring that such schools were free of charge to attending students, providing that all local districts would operate schools and for a certain period of time each year, and clarifying the relationship between the state and the local districts.
The supreme court did state that "once the legislature has provided suitable funding for the state school system, there may be nothing in the constitution that prevents the legislature from allowing school districts to raise additional funds for enhancements to the constitutionally adequate education already provided.
Women had always been teachers but with the closure of small private schools because they could not compete with free state schools, and Catholic parish schools being taken over by women religious, thereby excluding men and women lay teachers, the state school system now became the primary site for women teachers' labour, and their work was exposed publicly in the statistics for the first time.
A working class lad from Benwell, he says he is a great believer in the state school system and later he cut his film-making teeth at the North East Media Training Centre in Pelaw.
Having trained as a primary school teacher in Switzerland and having worked in both the Swiss state school system and international schools, I find it fascinating to analyse the teaching objectives from both sides.
It is evident that our state school system is now facing a fiscal catastrophe as never seen before.
Arab Israelis have the right to vote and they receive their education in a separate, Arabic-speaking state school system.
When Stranmillis College opened in 1922 it was intended to be a non-denominational teacher training college preparing men and women to teach in a religiously mixed state school system.