State System of Industrial Instruments and Automation

State System of Industrial Instruments and Automation


(GSP), the totality of equipment for receiving, transmitting, storing, processing, and presenting information on the condition and operation of various production processes and for generating control signals on those processes. The GSP consists of integrated elements, modules, and assemblies that provide informational, power, and designed interaction within complexes and automatic control systems. The GSP contains electrical, pneumatic, and hydraulic devices and installations that can provide ordinary, hermetic, vibration, dust, and moisture protection.

The equipment that receives and initially converts information includes sensors, push buttons, tabulators, and key computers with manual and semiautomatic controls for submitting information on punched cards, perforated and magnetic tapes, drums, and discs in addition to retrieval equipment that can transmit data over long distances. The transmission of data is carried out either by direct communications lines (if distances are short or there are specially allocated communications lines) or by telemechanical means if distances are long. The transmission of signals from many sources to one place is achieved with the aid of centralized control equipment.

Information-presentation equipment includes dial, numerical, symbolic, or other indicators; automatic-recording instruments; and printing and graph-making devices. For the best sensing capability a visual-control method is widely used that employs data-representation equipment, industrial television, and flow sheets. Computers are used in connection with the resolution of complex technical, economic, and other problems, when dealing with large amounts of information, and when it is necessary to put the data through a preliminary logical and mathematical analysis or synthesis. In controlling modern technical and power complexes it also is necessary to use computers.

The generation of control signals is achieved by regulators. A regulator receives a signal directly from a data unit or via a centralized control unit, processes it in accordance with a designated program, and sends electrical impulses on to an actuator which, through the use of regulating devices (corn-mutating apparatus, control valves, valves, gates, and slide gates) changes the flow of energy or substance and thus acts on the object under control.

The GSP units interact by means of standardized electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical, acoustic, or optical signals. The GSP units may generate either analogue or discrete signals, and they have controlled power supplies. The designed interaction of GSP units is provided by a unified group of modules and assemblies, including mounting plates, cassettes, housings, panels, cabinets, switchboards, and control panels, that has been standardized as to sizes and forms as well as with regard to the basic designs of the bases and the subassemblies that compose the units. As a result of this a high degree of component interchangeability is incorporated into the GSP parts.

The unification of GSP designs increases the technological qualities of items in production and simplifies their assembly, installation, setup, and operation. The information, power, and design compatability of GSP units has accelerated the design and production of automatic control systems and the regulation and control of automatic production equipment.


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