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(Russian, vokzal; from English “Vauxhall,” the name of a park and amusement park in a suburb of London, now within the city limits, belonging in the 17th century to Jane Vaux.) The word vokzal became a common noun in Russian from one of the first stations in Russia, the station at the city of Pavlovsk near St. Petersburg, which served both as a passenger building and as a concert hall.
A contemporary station is a building or a complex of buildings and structures intended basically to serve passengers (ticket and baggage offices and rest and waiting facilities), control traffic, and accommodate service personnel. Some stations also maintain cargo and postage operations. Stations are classified according to means of transportation, position along the route (terminal, junction, way station, or transit station), predominating categories of passengers served (long distance, local, suburban, or international), capacity (the number of passengers who can be accommodated by the station simultaneously), traffic capacity (the numbers of passengers passing through the building in a period of time), and so on.
The first stations appeared with passenger use of railroads (the station on the Stockton-Darlington line in England, 1822-25).
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, the station was one of the largest and most imposing buildings in major cities. The architecture of stations was originally influenced by the traditional types of public buildings and edifices. A search for a functional type of building for railroad stations began in the late 19th century in Russia and abroad. Stations for the new types of transportation appearing first in the 20th century (bus stations and airports) were built primarily in the spirit of contemporary architecture. Despite the large variety of types of contemporary stations, their architecture has much in common. The composition and plan of a station always includes three main inter-connected elements—a station square, a passenger building, and a platform (mooring, landing, or pier). The maintenance and service facilities are often contained in a single complex in the station.
The basic zones of the station are the operational (the ticket office and baggage area), the waiting areas (halls and rooms for short- and long-term waits and rests, restaurants, snack bars) and service and maintenance zones. The main passenger accommodations of contemporary stations (ticket office, waiting rooms) are usually large halls. Since stations draw an intensive flow of passengers, they become an important factor in city planning, as they substantially influence the organization of innercity traffic and the buildup of the areas around the station.
The problems of creating maximum comfort for passengers and the demands of technological and economic expediency led to the creation of amalgamated stations (also called complexes, combination stations, or integrated stations) that serve passengers who use several types of transportation in succession. There are railroad-bus (the most widespread), river-bus, and sea-railroad stations. Stations can be amalga-mated in various forms that range from the interconnected placement of two stations to their formation into a bloc with the complete amalgamation of all basic passenger accommodations into a single unit; in the latter passengers may use different halls for different types of transportation and share waiting rooms, cafes, restaurants, information booths, post offices, telegraph offices, cloakrooms, and so on. A series of large amalgamated stations were built in the USA, Italy, France, England, and the USSR (for example, the railroad-bus station in Cheliabinsk, 1965, by the architects L. M. Chuprin, S. L. Krushinskii, and P. F. Krasitskii and engineer T. K. Sidomonidze; the railroad-marine station in Vladivostok, 1965, by the architects P. I. Bronnikov, A. M. Georgievskii, V. A. Strogii, and K. D. Fomin, engineers N. I. Pevzner, I. M. Stoinov, and U. P. Shibaev, and interior de-signer A. I . Fomina). Many stations function in cooperation with public buildings of city wide significance—for example, hotels, restaurants, post offices, trade centers, and travel bureaus.
Amalgamated stations lighten the burden on city transportation, facilitate the construction of transportation and engineering communications, and prepare conditions for the formation of a valuable and developed architectural ensemble. The principle of cooperation—that is, of the universal use of accommodations and systems of stations—is rational, not only for the planning of new transportation passenger structures, but also for the reconstruction of existing ones.
REFERENCESGolubev, G. E., G. M. Andzhelini, and A. F. Modorov. Sovremennye vokzaly. Moscow, 1967. (Bibliography.)
“Ob’edinennyi vokzal.” InStroitel’stvo, vol. 2. Moscow, 1964. (Entsiklopediia sovremennoi tekhniki.)
G. E. GOLUBEV and V. M. PETIUSHENKO
a Paleolithic, Neolithic, or Bronze-Age settlement. The term “station” was first used in the 19th century to designate a settlement that was temporarily established by prehistoric people during seasonal hunting and fishing. Later, the term was also used to designate the settlement of a sedentary tribe of hunters and fishers. Excavations of these sites have uncovered hearths and the remains of dwellings.
(1) The habitat of a population.
(2) Part of a habitat occupied by an animal or animal species either for a short period of time or for a specific function. Several different kinds of station are distinguished: daytime, nighttime, seasonal, reproduction, feeding, experiencing unfavorable conditions, and dispersal (upon the advent of favorable conditions).
ii. A fixed military base such as an Air Force Station or a Naval Air Station.
iii. The designated distance along the blade as measured from the center of the hub. Referred to as a blade station
iv. The location of a radio transmitter. This is shown on the charts as .
v. The position of one aircraft in relation to the other. The act of maintaining this position is termed station keeping.
vi. In airline usage, an airport.
vii. A meteorological observation location. A station model gives various weather parameters prevalent at the time of observation at that location. See station model.
viii. The place of duty of a person, such as a turret station or a takeoff station.
ix. On station, already in the air and prepared to attack targets as directed, or to perform other tasks.