Steinitz, Wilhelm


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Steinitz, Wilhelm

(vĭl`hĕlm shtī`nĭts), 1836–1900, German chess player. In 1866 he won a match from Adolf AnderssenAnderssen, Adolf
(Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen), 1818–79, German chess player, b. Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland). He graduated (1847) from Breslau Univ. and later was a mathematics professor there.
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, the leading player after Paul MorphyMorphy, Paul Charles
, 1837–84, American chess player, b. New Orleans. At 10 he learned the game and at 21 was acknowledged as the greatest player in the world. Not only was Morphy possessed of a phenomenal memory, which he demonstrated in astounding feats of simultaneous
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's retirement, and became world champion, although the title did not officially exist. Until 1892, when he lost to Harry Nelson Pillsbury, he defeated all the leading players. In 1894 he lost the world championship to Emanuel LaskerLasker, Emanuel
, 1868–1941, German chess player. He won the world championship in 1894 when he defeated Wilhelm Steinitz and held it until he was defeated by José Raúl Capablanca in 1921.
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. The closed position, characterized by fixed pawns on both sides and the establishment of lasting positional values, was Steinitz's forte. He edited (1885–91) the International Chess Magazine in New York City and wrote The Modern Chess Instructor (2 vol., 1889–95).

Steinitz, Wilhelm

 

Born May 14, 1836, in Prague; died Aug. 12, 1900, in New York. First world chess champion (1886–94). Chess theorist.

Steinitz studied at the Polytechnic Institute in Vienna. He lived in London from 1862 and 1883, afterward living in the United States. He was officially proclaimed world champion after winning a match with J. Zukertort (1886). In the 1880’s he developed his theory of positional play. His outstanding successes included victories against A. Anderssen (1866), M. I. Chigorin (1889, 1892), I. Gunsberg (1890–91), and E. S. Shiffers (1896) and his victories in the international tournaments at Vienna in 1873 and 1882 (together with S. Winawer) and New York in 1894. In 1894, Steinitz lost a world championship match to E. Lasker.

REFERENCES

Levidov, M. Iu. Steinits, Lasker. Moscow, 1936.
Neishtadt, Ia. I. Pervyi chempion mira. Moscow, 1971.