Stimuli


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Stimuli

 

in biology, various alterations in the external or internal environment of an organism that are capable, when acting on a biological system such as nervous, muscular, or glandular tissue, of altering the system’s original state, that is, of producing excitation. Stimuli may be physical, chemical, and physicochemical and adequate or inadequate. They affect specific nerve endings (receptors) and other cells of organs and tissues.

References in periodicals archive ?
In comparison, the mean "Terrorist" ratings of the class of North American male stimuli increased by only .
In commonly employed stimulus equivalence procedures, it is not possible to determine if failure to respond in accordance with stimulus equivalence is related to stimuli involved in trained conditional discriminations no longer exerting relevant stimulus control, as the status of these discriminations is not normally assessed at the time of the stimulus equivalence test.
The results of this experiment showed that conditioning visual stimuli as a reinforcer for observing resulted in acquisition of accuracy for match-to-sample programs for all of the participants.
Stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures have also been used to expand children's community of reinforcers by teaching them to prefer previously non-preferred stimuli (Greer, Becker, Saxe, & Mirabella, 1985; Greer, Dorow, & Hanser, 1973; Nuzzolo-Gomez, Leonard, Ortiz, Rivera, & Greer, 2002).
In an attempt to further define the etiology of dental anxiety, this study examined how negative perceptions of commonly occurring dental stimuli factor into the dental fear equation.
Pleasant stimuli included erotic and action images such as nudes, surfing, or racing.
The scientists had surgically altered nerves exiting the animals' spinal cords so the rats were especially sensitive to stimuli.
Sensory isolation is facilitated by depriving all auditory and visual external stimuli except for a monochromatic visual field and white noise.
ABSTRACT: Several of our previous studies showed that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by psi targets in a forced-choice precognition task differed significantly from ERPs elicited by nontarget stimuli.
When the neurons coding the distracting stimuli synchronize their activity, monkeys become sluggish at the same task.
Most human behaviors are controlled by many stimuli simultaneously.