Stockbridge


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Stockbridge,

Native North Americans of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). In the early 17th cent. they were known as the Housatonic and were part of the Mahican confederacy. They then occupied part of the valley of the Housatonic River in SW Massachusetts. Their principal village, Westenhuck, was for a long time the Mahican capital after the removal of the council fire from Schodac. In 1734, John Sergeant began missionary work among them, and two years later the tribe was moved to a tract reserved for them by the colonial government. After the village of Stockbridge was established, they obtained their present name. They suffered terribly in the French and Indian War, at the close of which they numbered about 200. Accepting an invitation from the Oneida, the remnants of the Stockbridge moved to New York where they established New Stockbridge. In 1833 they moved to a reservation at Green Bay, Wis., where they joined the Munsee. In the 1850s most of them moved to a reservation in Shawano co., Wis. In 1990 there were some 2,200 Stockbridge in the United States.

Stockbridge,

resort town (1990 pop. 2,408), Berkshire co., W Mass., on the Housatonic River, in the Berkshire Mts.; inc. 1739. It is a year-round tourist resort with nearby lake, ski, and recreational areas. Stockbridge was founded (1734) as a mission for the Housatonic Mahicans (later known as the Stockbridge tribe); the mission house, restored as a museum, was built in 1739. The Berkshire Playhouse, a leading summer theater; a large art colony; and several galleries and museums are there. The annual Tanglewood Music FestivalTanglewood Music Festival,
formerly the Berkshire Festival (until 1984), summer music festival held since 1937 at "Tanglewood," a former estate in the adjoining towns of Stockbridge and Lenox, Mass. The Berkshire Festival was begun in 1934 at a farm in Stockbridge.
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 is held at a former estate largely in the town of Stockbridge. Also of interest are the studio of sculptor Daniel Chester FrenchFrench, Daniel Chester,
1850–1931, American sculptor, b. Exeter, N.H., studied in Florence and in Boston with William Rimmer. After executing his first large work, The Minute Man
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; the Old Corner House (18th cent.; restored); Naumkeag, the summer home of Joseph ChoateChoate, Joseph Hodges
, 1832–1917, American lawyer and diplomat, b. Salem, Mass.; nephew of Rufus Choate. After being admitted (1855) to the bar, he moved to New York City.
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; and the Norman RockwellRockwell, Norman,
1894–1978, American illustrator, b. New York City. One of America's favorite artists, Rockwell specialized in warm and humorous scenes of small-town American life, and from the late 1930s he used ordinary people as his models.
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 Museum. The Boston Symphony Orchestra maintains a music school there.
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