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an acute viral disease of animals manifested by fever and the formation of vesicles (blisters), mainly in the oral cavity. Vesicular stomatitis affects cattle, sol-idungulates, and swine. The disease occurs in several European and Asian countries; it usually occurs in humid weather during the period when animals pasture, which coincides with the season of activity of insects.
Infected animals are the source of vesicular stomatitis. The virus is transmitted by infected feed, water, milking machines, and workers who care for the animals. Horseflies, deerflies, mosquitoes, fungus gnats, crane flies, and the Phlebotomidae are mechanical transmitters of the disease. Vesicular stomatitis lasts one to three weeks, with the animals generally experiencing a complete recovery. Sick animals have a body temperature of 41–42°C, salivate profusely, and have no appetite. Besides the oral cavity, vesicles may also appear on the skin of other parts of the body.
Diagnosis is based on epizootiological and clinical findings and on laboratory tests. The disease is treated locally with antiinflammatories and antimicrobials. Preventive and control measures include the observance of health regulations, the isolation of sick animals, the disinfection of animal quarters, and the control of insects.