Stopes, Marie Carmichael (stōps), 1880–1958, English paleobotanist and eugenicist, b. Edinburgh, D.Sc. Univ. of London, Ph.D. Univ. of Munich. She lectured on paleobotany at the universities of London and Manchester. In 1921, with Humphrey Verdon Roe, her second husband, she founded the first birth-control clinic in the British Empire. Her activities in this field gave impetus to similar movements elsewhere. Her many works include books on eugenics, birth control, and paleobotany.