Straits Settlements


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Straits Settlements,

collective name for certain former British colonies in Southeast Asia. The three British East India Company territories of PinangPinang
or Penang
, state (1991 pop. 1,065,075), c.400 sq mi (1,040 sq km), Malaysia, on the Strait of Malacca. It consists of Pulau Pinang (an island of 108 sq mi/280 sq km), formerly known as Georgetown; and Province Wellesley (292 sq mi/756 sq km), a strip of
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, SingaporeSingapore
, officially Republic of Singapore, republic (2005 est. pop. 4,426,000), 299 sq mi (774 sq km). It consists of the island of Singapore and about 60 small adjacent islands at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, SE Asia.
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, and Malacca (see MelakaMelaka
or Malacca
, state (1991 pop. 504,502), 640 sq mi (1,658 sq km), Malaysia, S Malay Peninsula, on the Strait of Malacca. Formerly one of the Straits Settlements, it was constituted a state of Malaya in 1957 (see Malaysia).
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) were given a unified administration in 1826 and called the Straits Settlements. The company was dissolved in 1858, and the territories were placed under the jurisdiction of the India Office. In 1867 the Straits Settlements became a crown colony administered by the Colonial Office. LabuanLabuan
, island (1991 pop. 54,307), 38 sq mi (98 sq km), a federal territory of Malaysia, off Sabah, N Borneo, in the South China Sea. Coconuts, rubber, and rice are the main products.
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, which had been made a dependency of Singapore in 1906, was constituted a fourth Settlement in 1912. (Christmas IslandChristmas Island,
tropical island (2001 pop. 1,508), 60 sq mi (155 sq km), an external territory of Australia, in the Indian Ocean c.200 mi (320 km) S of Java. The majority of the inhabitants are descendants of Chinese and Malays who came to work the extensive phosphate deposits.
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 and the Cocos IslandsCocos Islands
or Keeling Islands,
officially Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, two separate atolls comprising 27 coral islets (2001 pop. 621), 5.5 sq mi (14.2 sq km), in the Indian Ocean, c.1,400 mi (2,250 km) SE of Sri Lanka.
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 had been made dependencies of Singapore in 1889 and 1903, respectively.) The Straits Settlement crown colony was dissolved in 1946; Singapore with its dependencies became a separate crown colony, and Pinang and Malacca were included in the Malayan Union, which became the Federation of Malaya in 1948, now MalaysiaMalaysia
, independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital.
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.

Straits Settlements

 

from 1826 to 1946, a British colony in Southeast Asia. The Straits Settlements originally included the island of Pinang and Province Wellesley, which is situated on the Malay Peninsula, and also the island of Singapore and the city of Malacca. Later the colony included a Naning, a principality on the Malay Peninsula that was conquered in 1831–32, as well as Labuan Island, the Cocos Islands, and Christmas Island. George Town, on Pinang, was the capital until 1832, when Singapore became the capital.

The Straits Settlements were a part of British India until 1867, when they became a Crown Colony. As of 1976, Pinang, the Malay Peninsula, and Labuan Island have become part of Malaysia. Singapore is a republic, and the Cocos Islands and Christmas Island belong to the Commonwealth of Australia.

Straits Settlements

(formerly) a British crown colony of SE Asia that included Singapore, Penang, Malacca, Labuan, and some smaller islands
References in periodicals archive ?
I was delighted to read of John Turnbull Thompson (1821-1884), first government surveyor of the Straits Settlements from 1841-55, designer of Horsburgh lighthouse on Pedra Branca, and who migrated to New Zealand in 1856 becoming NZ's first surveyor-general 1876-79.
In 1867, the British government took over control of the Straits Settlements from the Company, making it a Crown Colony.
By contrast, the book under review takes up the well-known Weberian thesis of the influence of rational-bureaucratic administration on religious practices to examine closely the morphing of Hindu temple life in the Straits Settlements in the colonial and postcolonial milieux.
Sayid Muhammad al-Sagoff also had relations with regional leaders such as the Sultan of Siak, Sultan of Langkat, Sultan of Pontianak and the Governor of the Straits Settlements.
The Straits Chinese, largely restricted to the British-administered Straits Settlements, shared in the Malay Peninsula's prosperous 19th-century colonial economy, and as a result material aspects of their culture blossomed.
In 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved; Penang and Malacca became part of the Malayan Union, and Singapore became a separate British Crown Colony.
Nathan, president of the Philatelic Society of Malaysia, has been collecting pre-1900 Straits Settlements items since the mid-1980s.
Sir Stamford Raffles founded a British settlement on the island of Singapore in 1819 and by 1830 the British Straits Settlements also included Malacca.
For the years surrounding the 1918 pandemic, data were obtained from the Annual Departmental Reports of the Straits Settlements (the British colonies that included Singapore, Penang, Malacca, and Labuan; the last 3 are now part of Malaysia), and from the Registry of Births and Deaths, Singapore.
Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya and Straits Chinese (named after the Straits of Malacca) are terms used for the descendants of the early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits settlements of Singapore, Malacca and Penang and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay customs in an effort to be assimilated into the local communities.
However, she uses the development of, and debates surrounding, this legislation--specifically in Hong Kong, India, Queensland, Australia, and the Straits Settlements (contemporary Malaysia and Singapore)--to open a much broader discussion on the connections between disease and sexual activity, law and gender, and the political tensions between metropole and colony, among many other topics.