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the basal part of the stems of grain crops left on the roots after harvest. A variety of weeds remain on the field along with the stubble until frosts set in. Concealed stem pests and the causative agents of crop diseases find shelter in the stubble and weeds. Therefore, in most regions of the USSR the stubble is removed at harvest time or immediately afterward. Later, when the shoots of the weeds appear, they are plowed under. If postharvest or winter crops are planted, the stubble is plowed under after harvesting. In regions that suffer from wind erosion and harsh and largely snowless winters (steppe regions of Kazakhstan and Siberia), the stubble is cultivated with deep rippers or flat-cutting cultivators. This keeps about 85–90 percent of the stubble on the field to help retain snow. Stubble is left intact even after the harvesting of grain crops, under which perennial grasses are sown.
G. M. GOLOVIN