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a registry of pedigree agricultural animals that satisfy breed standards. The publication of a studbook is essential in pedigree stock raising. Such a registry makes it possible to study the evolution of breeds. It helps breeders coordinate their efforts to improve a given breed and promotes efficient use of pedigree animals.
The first studbook was published in Great Britain in 1793. A registry of the Thoroughbred saddle horse, it listed pedigree horses going back to 1660. Throughout the 19th century stud-books were maintained for most breeds of farm animals. In Russia the first studbook, also on the Thoroughbred saddle horse, was published in 1834. It was followed by studbooks for cattle. Studbooks are now published regularly in the USSR for all major breeds of farm animals.
In most capitalist countries, studbooks are closed, since they list only purebred animals whose ancestors were already registered in a studbook. Studbooks are issued by livestock-breeding cooperatives and, in some countries, by state agencies. In the USSR they are all state controlled and open. The registries are inspected by the ministries of agriculture of the USSR and the Union republics and their oblast or krai boards. Both purebreds and almost pureblood crossbreeds are registered in open stud-books, with the latter listed separately. The registration requirements conform to the first class standard. A certificate is issued for an animal entered in a studbook, thus increasing the value of the animal and its offspring.
Besides ordinary studbooks, a number of countries, including the USSR, issue books listing only sires and dams outstanding in productivity and quality of offspring.
S. A. RUZSKII