subject and object


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subject and object

(PHILOSOPHY) twin concepts, subject (person, mind, theorist, etc.) and object (external world), which have been central in much philosophical (and also sociological) discussion, especially EPISTEMOLOGY. The central issues have been: how the subject can come to ‘know’ the object, and how each is constituted (ONTOLOGY). Thus, an empiricist (see EMPIRICISM) may claim that the world is made up of’things’, and that the mind consists of’ideas’, and that the latter ‘picture’ or ‘represent’ the former. Alternatively in IDEALISM, ideas may be claimed to structure our perception of objects. Recent movements in philosophy, (e.g. POSTSTRUCTURALISM, POST-EMPIRICISM) have sought to break with traditional conceptions of subject and object (see DECONSTRUCTION, DECENTRED SELF),and to move away from rigid conceptions of epistemology or ontology. In some forms, such a movement away from traditional conceptions of the foundations of knowledge has been associated with RELATIVISM (see also INCOMMENSURABILITY), but another view is that it can be presented as a move beyond objectivism or relativism (see FEYERABEND).
References in classic literature ?
After mentioning the duality of subject and object, which is supposed to constitute consciousness, he proceeds in italics: "EXPERIENCE, I BELIEVE, HAS NO SUCH INNER DUPLICITY; AND THE SEPARATION OF IT INTO CONSCIOUSNESS AND CONTENT COMES, NOT BY WAY OF SUBTRACTION, BUT BY WAY OF ADDITION"(p.
The ambiguity of the lived body -- as both subject and object -- is thus reduced by the white Other to the status of a thing.
Its passivity both exacerbates the distinction between subject and object and positions the subject for a more or less secretly wished-for relation of mastery to the object.
The ancient problem of subject and object, which probably can be traced back to Plato's idea of the philosopher's eye and the eternal idea, is something that my works attempt to dismantle.
Sliding the distance point toward the principal point, the picture "looks" back at the viewer, making him/her both subject and object of the configuration, conjoining the viewpoint with the two-dimensional surface of the representation.
8 For instance, Bergson, whose entire project in Matter and Memory is to overturn what he sees as a traditional hierarchical relationship between spatial and temporal ontology, says at the end of the third argument (in which he has reformulated perception as a relation between affection and duration) that "questions relating to subject and object, to their distinction and their union, should be put in terms of time rather than space" (71).
Of the fourteen contributors to Subject and Object in Renaissance Culture, over half participated in the previous venture; all three co-editors of Rewriting the Renaissance are included in the present collection, and two of the three co-editors of Subject and Object were contributors to the earlier volume.
As its title signals, Subject and Object seeks to counter the image of the autonomous individual whose freedom is directly proportional to his or her unencumbered state, by putting this subject back into the context of objects that not only surround but also define and constrain the self.
Visual material in Subject and Object includes Nancy Vickers's study of book production, Ann Rosalind Jones's work on Velazquez, Margaret Ferguson's use of visual evidence in tracing cultural exchanges between Europe and the New World, and, at least by implication, Peter Stallybrass's examination of the central role of costumes.
The second innovative element in Subject and Object - slavery and the racial distinctions upon which it is founded - has no equivalent in the earlier Rewriting the Renaissance, which concentrates on gender rather than race.
There are ties with childhood here, and with the exploration of the "third zone" between subject and object that D.
A disorienting perceptual space is created from this collision of landscape and still life, challenging the phenomenological relationship between subject and object specific to each genre.