Subshrubs


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Subshrubs

 

low-growing plants (5-60 cm tall) with lignified perennial, usually profusely branched shoots and no clearly expressed main trunk. Subshrubs often have a long rootstock (for example, bilberry and mountain cranberry); some have creeping shoots (cranberry). Sometimes, particularly in the high mountains, subshrubs assume a pulvinate form (Diapensia lap-ponica). The principal aboveground shoots live five to ten years. Subshrubs predominate in the vegetation cover of the tundras (species of birch and willow and many Ericaceae); they sometimes form a solid layer in coniferous forests. Subshrubs predominate in sphagnum marshes (cranberry, bog whortleberry, marsh andromeda, leatherleaf, and rhododendron) and form the vegetation of such wastelands as the heaths in Western Europe. They grow in the high mountains of South America, South Africa, and New Zealand, as well as in the Pamirs.


Subshrubs

 

perennial plants in which the lower parts of the shoots bearing the renewal buds become woody and live for several years while the upper parts remain grassy and die each year (unlike in shrubs and undershrubs). Subshrubs are usually not more than 80 cm high; in rare cases they reach a height of 150–200 cm. They differ from perennial grasses in that their renewal buds are normally several centimeters above the ground. Subshrubs are found primarily in arid regions. The position of the buds above the ground protects them from overheating in the scorching soil. Examples of subshrubs are Ceratoides and many species of steppe and desert wormwoods, vetches, and saltworts (Halocnemum, Kalidium). An example of a particularly small subshrub is the creeping plant thyme.

References in periodicals archive ?
Early planting time causes more aggregative absorption of solar radiation and thermal units by plant which leads to height, subshrub and leaf number and consequently biological yield increases.
Just as with subshrubs, wait until mid-June to prune.
Other genera of composites that contain many cold desert subshrubs include Mausolea (close to Artemisia), which occurs in the sands of central Asia; Ajania, from the stony deserts of central Asia; Chrysothamnus, of the deserts of North America; Haplopappus, of the deserts of North and South America; and Baccharis and Senecio, both in the deserts of South America.
Flora of Rawalakot also include 26 herbaceous, one liana and two subshrubs which were rare.
Many species, especially subshrubs, play a fundamental role in the tropical forest community structures, they are the food source of mammals, birds and insects that feed on pollen, nectar and fruits (Castro & Oliveira, 2002; Melo, Bento, & Oliveira, 2003).
The plant community in the rupestrian grasslands is mainly composed of an herbaceous stratum with small shrubs and subshrubs which supports high biodiversity and endemism levels (Giulietti et al.
Other common shrubs and subshrubs at the study site in New Mexico included honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), tree cholla (Cylindropuntia imbricata), broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and soapweed yucca (Yucca glauca).
Since the early 19th Century, the occurrence of various shrubs and subshrubs have significantly increased in former grasslands on the south-eastern fringe of the Tengger Desert, due mainly to overgrazing by livestock and the expansion of the desert (Li and Jia 2005).
Species of this genus are terrestrial to epiphytic herbs, subshrubs or shrubs that grow in the understory of wet forest from Honduras to southern Peru.
Areytophyllum (Rubiaceae) includes 15 species of small erect shrubs and prostrate subshrubs distributed at high elevations from Costa Rica to Bolivia with all except one species reported from paramo (Mena, 1990; Luteyn, 1999).