1967: 178) Keesing ends his seminal 1984 article on the same note, urging scholars with the needed command of Oceanic languages and comparative sociological vision to 'connect the substantivizations
of mana in metaphysical terms with the worldly circumstances that have given rise to such cosmologies' and to anchor mana 'in social systems rather than disembodied philosophies' (1984: 152-53).
Lehmann (1988) and Mackenzie (1987) are two representative accounts pertaining to deverbalization and substantivization aspect of nominalizations, respectively:
In other words, loss of external categories in deverbalization processes is more harmonic than loss of internal categories, and acquisition of external categories in substantivization is more harmonic than acquisition of internal ones.
The situation for substantivization can be similarly captured through conflicting FuncFaith and LexFaith constraint subhierarchies, which are represented in (5) and (6), respectively:
Also in this case FuncFaith is a driving force behind substantivization, while LexFaith is used as a "hedging device" preventing an item from (full) recategorization.
The role of hierarchy constraints in deverbalization and substantivization processes will be examined separately in Section 5 and Section 6, respectively.
These equally pertain to the presentation of the substantivization dine below).
Dutch also lacks a specific suffix that is parallel to English -ee, but it compensates for this lack by using the first strategy: substantivization
through the addition of -e to the passive participle allows reference to the person who is affected by an action.
Keesing offered an argument about the social forces behind the substantivization of mana in Polynesian languages, writing that it was related to hereditary chieftainships' transformation 'into an aristocratic class' with a correlated 'creation of developed theologies .
If Keesing is right, then the substantivization of 'mana' in Fijian discourse might be driven, at least in part, by the British-led creation of an indigenous Fijian aristocracy, as well as British encouragement of large-scale Indian labour migration to the islands.
There can be no doubt that this model of Maori socio-political organisation to some extent corresponds with the structure and practice of twentieth-century Maori society, but the widespread reification of the model, its substantivization
`out of time'(4), its projection into nineteenth century and pre-colonial history as well as its perpetuation into the present, cannot be justified.
and Anthroplogical Discourse: The Transformation of Practices into Institutions in Neotraditional Pacific Societies.