Succinate Dehydrogenase

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succinate dehydrogenase

[¦sək·sə‚nāt ‚dē·hī′dräj·ə‚nās]
A key enzyme in the citric acid cycle; it oxidizes succinate to fumarate.

Succinate Dehydrogenase


an enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that is prevalent in plant and animal cells, where it is localized in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Succinate dehydrogenase is one of the important enzymes involved in energy metabolism. In the tricarboxylic acid cycle, it catalyzes the reversible oxidation of succinic acid (succinate) to fumaric acid. The oxidation of one mole of succinic acid results in the synthesis of two moles of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The electrons are transmitted from succinate dehydrogenase to the respiratory chain through coenzyme Q.

Succinate dehydrogenase, isolated in 1954 by the American scientist T. Singer, is structurally a flavoprotein; the protein constituent is covalently bound to the coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The enzyme contains eight atoms of nonheme iron as well as labile sulfur atoms. Sulfhydryl groups are believed to constitute part of the active center of succinate dehydrogenase.


Lehninger, A. Biokhimiia. Moscow, 1974. (Translated from English.)
Singer, T. P., E. B. Kearney, and W. C. Kenney. “Succinate Dehydrogenase.” In Advances in Enzymology and Related Subjects of Biochemistry, vol. 37. New York, 1973.


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Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) Activity
7] Human genes: RET, ret proto-oncogene; VHL, von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; NF1, neurofibromin 1; SDHD, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein; TMEM127, transmembrane protein 127; MAX, MYC associated factor X.
These genes included succinate dehydrogenase (SDHC), cytochrome c oxidase (COX5B/ COX6B), and various genes of the ATP synthase complex (ATP5G1, ATP5C1, ATP5J, ATP5B, ATP5A1, ATP50, and ATP5F1).
The test chemicals did not cause cytotoxicity at concentrations of 30 [micro]M and below, based on visual inspection of the cells, cell attachment, protein content of the wells, and the inability of the triazines to decrease the mitochondrial activity of succinate dehydrogenase determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test (22).
Second, some tumors, especially those caused by mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene [SDHB, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B, iron sulfur (Ip)], do not naturally produce large amounts of catecholamines, despite their unaffected secretion (2).
For example, oral administration of DEHP to rats induced liver mitochondrial swelling and reduced succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity (34), and studies with isolated rat liver mitochondria showed that MEHP caused uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of SDH activity (35).
multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis type 1, von Hippel Lindau syndrome, or succinate dehydrogenase mutations); a family history of PCC; an incidentally discovered adrenal mass; pressor response to anesthesia, surgery, or angiography; onset of hypertension at a young age (<20 years); idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy; and a history of gastrointestinal stromal tumors or pulmonary chondromas.
Both types of tumors are associated with conditions that are inherited in an autosomally dominant manner, such as: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), [2] which is due to a mutation in the RET [3] (ret proto-oncogene) protooncogene; von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), which is due to a mutation in the VHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor) gene; neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), caused by mutation in the NF1 (neurofibromin 1) gene; and mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits B, C, and D, which are encoded by the SDHB [succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B, iron sulfur (Ip)], SDHC (succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C, integral membrane protein, 15kDa), and SDHD (succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein) genes.