Sucre, Antonio José de


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Sucre, Antonio José de

(äntô`nyō hōsā` thā so͞o`krā), 1795–1830, South American revolutionist, b. Cumaná, Venezuela. He joined (1811) the forces fighting for independence from Spain and rose to be the chief lieutenant of Simón BolívarBolívar, Simón
, 1783–1830, South American revolutionary who led independence wars in the present nations of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
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. After Colombia had been liberated from the Spanish, Bolívar sent Sucre to the Quito region (now Ecuador), where he won (1822) the brilliant victory of PichinchaPichincha
, volcano, 15,918 ft (4,852 m) high, N Ecuador, near Quito. It last erupted in 1881. On its lower slopes, in the decisive battle of Pichincha on May 24, 1822, patriot forces under Antonio José de Sucre routed the Spanish royalists and freed the territory that
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. Accompanying Bolívar to Peru, he distinguished himself in the revolutionary victory of Junín (Aug., 1824). Bolívar was absent, and Sucre was the chief commander when the battle of Ayacucho was fought (Dec., 1824). Sucre's military genius was splendidly displayed in this victory, which assured the independence of South America. The terms he granted to the defeated were generous, and Sucre was known for his kindness as well as his honesty and self-effacing modesty. It was against his own will that he became president of the newly created state of Bolivia, and he was not happy in the post. Despite the conciliatory spirit of his rule, an attempt was made on his life. In 1828 he resigned and returned to Quito. A few months later he led the forces that repelled a Peruvian invasion. He was elected president of the constitutional convention that met in 1830 in an effort to prevent Bolívar's large republic of Colombia from disintegrating. Sucre's efforts to prevent Venezuela from seceding and becoming a separate state failed. In June, 1830, when he was riding back from the congress to his home in Quito, he was waylaid by unknown men in a wild mountainous region and killed.

Sucre, Antonio José de

 

Born Feb. 3, 1795, at Cumaná, Venezuela; died June 4,1830, in Colombia. One of the leaders of the war for independence of the Spanish colonies in America from 1810 to 1826. Close comrade-in-arms of S. Bolivar. General (1818) and marshal (1824).

Sucre began his service with the army of F. Miranda in 1810. Subsequently he headed the liberation campaign in Ecuador, and on May 24, 1822, he defeated the Spanish forces at Pichincha. During the liberation campaign in Peru, he won a decisive victory at Ayacucho in December 1824, and in February 1825 he entered La Paz. Sucre played a prominent role in the establishment of the republic of Bolivia in upper Peru in August 1825 and became its temporary president in April 1826. He left the country in May 1828, as an anti-Bolívar revolt was in course. During the Peruvian forces’ invasion of Grán Colombia, Sucre won a victory in February 1829 near Junin. In 1830 he became president of the National Congress of Gran Colombia. He was assassinated by members of the opposition. Named after Sucre are a city in southern Bolivia, a state in northeastern Venezuela, and a unit of currency in Ecuador.

WORKS

Cartas al Libertador (1820–1830), vols. 1–2. Madrid, 1919.

REFERENCE

Lavretskii, I. Bolivar, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.