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(so͞o'läwā`sē), formerly


(sĕl`əbēz), island (1990 pop. 12,511,163), c.73,000 sq mi (189,070 sq km), largest island in E Indonesia, E of Borneo, from which it is separated by the Makasar Strait. Extremely irregular in shape, it comprises four large peninsulas separated by three gulfs—Tomini on the northeast, Tolo on the southeast, and Bone on the south. Ujung PandangUjung Pandang
, formerly Makasar
, city (1990 pop. 944,685), SW Sulawesi, capital of Sulawesi Selatan prov., Indonesia. The largest city in Sulawesi, it is one of Indonesia's important seaports, a distribution and transshipment point for goods from Europe and Asia.
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 (Makasar) is its chief city and port; other important towns are ManadoManado
or Menado
, town (1990 pop. 318,406), capital of Sulawesi Utara prov., on the northeast coast of Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is a trade center and seaport on an inlet of the Celebes Sea; exports include copra, coffee, spices, sugarcane, and lumber.
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, Gorontalo, and Palopo.

The terrain is almost wholly mountainous, with many active volcanoes. Mt. Rantemario (11,286 ft/3,440 m) and Mt. Rantekombola (11,335 ft/3,455 m) are the highest peaks. There are numerous lakes; Towuti is the largest and Tondano, with its waterfall, the most beautiful. Asian and Australian elements are comingled in the fauna, which includes the babirusa (resembling swine), the anoa, a small wild ox found only in Sulawesi, the baboon, some rare species of parrot, and many crocodiles.

Valuable stands of timber cover much of the island; many forest products are exported. Mineral resources include nickel, gold, diamonds, sulfur, and low-grade iron ore. The mountainous terrain, with only a few narrow coastal plains, limits agriculture; many inhabitants seek their livelihood from the sea, and there are trepang (sea cucumber) and mother-of-pearl industries. Sulawesi is, however, a major source of copra, and corn, rice, cassava, yams, tobacco, and spices are grown. Tourism was developed in the 1990s, and Sulawesi has become especially attractive to divers.

The inhabitants of Sulawesi are Malayan, except for some indigenous ethnic groups in the interior. The largest ethnic group is the Makasarese-Bugis, who are renowned as seafaring traders; they are Muslim. In the north are the Minahassa, who are Christian. The Univ. of North and Central Sulawesi is in Manado, and private universities are in Manado, Gorontalo, and Ujung Pandang.

Human settlement of the island is ancient. Paleolithic artPaleolithic art
, art produce during the Paleolithic period. Present study and knowledge of this art has been largely confined to works discovered at more than 150 sites in W Europe, particularly to the magnificent cave paintings in N Spain and the Dordogne valley of SW France.
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 found in Sulawesi caves has been dated to at least 40,000 years ago. The Portuguese first visited the island in 1512. The Dutch expelled the Portuguese in the 1600s and conquered the natives in the Makasar War (1666–69). In 1950, it became one of 10 provinces of newly created Indonesia; it has since been divided into 4 provinces. Since 1998 the island has been the site of violence between Muslims and Christians. The Sulawesi Sea or Celebes Sea is north of the island, between it and the Philippines.



(also Celebes), an island in the Malay Archipelago; part of Indonesia. Area, approximately 170,000 sq km (including nearby islands, approximately 190,000 sq km). Population, 8.5 million (1971).

The island is composed of ancient granites and gneisses, Mesozoic limestones, and sedimentary and volcanic rocks of recent origin. Its configuration stems from a combination of horsts, faults, and folded mountain chains of varying extent. Four peninsulas extend outward from the island’s center; no place on the island is more than 150 km from the coast. The coasts are for the most part precipitous, and the total coastline is approximately 6,000 km long. Coral reefs fringe parts of the coast. Lowlands are few, covering no more than one-fifth of the surface area. Mountains predominate, with Mount Rantekombola, at 3,455 m, the highest peak on the island. The mountains are typically steep, with flat summits. Active volcanoes, including Mount Soputan, dot the Minahasa Peninsula. Earthquakes often occur there.

The climate is subequatorial and monsoonal on most of the island and equatorial in the north. On the coast, the average temperature is 25°-27°C throughout the year. The annual precipitation ranges from 2,000 to 5,000 mm. The dry season lasts from July through October. The rivers are short and turbulent. Lakes are numerous; Towuti and Poso are among the largest.

Dense equatorial forests cover much of the island. They are rich in species, including palms, dipterocarps, conifers, panda-nuses, sandalwood, ebony, ironwood, teak, lianas, and bamboo. In the south and in the closed basins of the mountains are savanna and thickets of shrubs, with the occurrence of Australian species.

The fauna of Sulawesi represent a complex mixture of Indo-Malayan and Australian species, with an admixture of endemic species, such as the babirusa, anoa, crested macaque, two-horned rhinoceros, and elephant. The birdlife is varied, with such notable species as cockatoos and birds of paradise. The flora and fauna of Sulawesi are officially protected in the Tangkoku-Batuangus Nature Park, the site of the volcanic Mount Klabat.

Sulawesi has deposits of nickel at Kolaka, iron ore in latentes at Larona, and precious metals. Rice and sweet potatoes are among the principal crops, and there are plantations of coconut palm, coffee, spices, and rubber plants. Fishing is a major local industry. The principal cities are Ujung Pandang (Makasar) and Wenang (Manado).


At the end of the first millennium and beginning of the second millennium A.D., a series of feudal states, including those of Bone, Gowa, and Luwu, emerged on Sulawesi. In the late 13th and 14th centuries, the states of Sulawesi were vassal states of the Majapahit Empire, which spread over all of what is now Indonesia. From the 17th to early 20th centuries, Sulawesi was ruled by the Dutch.

In 1946, during the Netherlands’ colonial war against the Republic of Indonesia, which had been proclaimed on Aug. 17, 1945, the Dutch colonialists founded the puppet state of East Indonesia, with its capital at Makasar. In December 1946, Dutch authorities killed 40,000 patriots in southern Sulawesi. In 1949, Sulawesi joined the United States of Indonesia, which in 1950 was transformed into the unitary Republic of Indonesia.


Antipov, V. I. Indoneziia. Moscow, 1967.


an island in E Indonesia: mountainous and forested, with volcanoes and hot springs. Pop.: 14 768 400 (1999 est.). Area (including adjacent islands): 229 108 sq. km (88 440 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
One subject of learning basic dance South Sulawesi, where researchers focused choose Mandar basic dance (dance Pattukduk Kumba) because previous research on the dance Pattukduk Kumba only discussed the shift in value orientation of the sacred to profane (Padalia, 2002: 8) [2].
The seropositive samples from South Sulawesi and West Sulawesi Provinces were collected in July and August of 2000, immediately pre-dating an active yaws outbreak among humans in the region that caused 241 documented cases in the neighboring southeastern peninsula during 2001-2011 (WHO, http://apps.
Based on testimony from another suspect we had arrested, those two were identified as Uighurs," said Central Sulawesi police spokesman Hari Suprapto, adding that authorities had notified the Chinese embassy in Jakarta.
floresiensis or a closely related lineage was responsible for the Sulawesi artifacts," says Harvard University archaeologist Christian Tryon, who did not participate in the new excavations.
Sulawesi Adventure starts in Makassar, the capital of South Sulawesi a multi-ethnic city, before heading over the central mountain range and across rice plains to the port of Poso.
The Indonesia Meteorology and Geophysics Agency said the quake which struck just 22 minutes before midnight (16:3 GMT) 8Monday, centered about 58 kilometers (36 miles) southeast of Talaud islands in North Sulawesi province, has no potential to trigger tsunami.
KM Marina Baru 02B was en route from Kolaka in southeast Sulawesi to Siwa seaport in South Sulawesi.
EST -AaAaAeAeAaAeAeA Reuters reports:AaAaAeAeAaAeAeA Dozens of people w jackets were found floating in Indonesia's Gulf of Bone on Sunday, some clinging to a fish trap, after abandoning their ferry in rough seas off Sulawesi Island, said officials, adding that two passengers had died.
But the wonders of Sumatra and the Monsoon Rainforest - which will be the largest indoor zoo exhibit in the UK and home to Sumatran orangutans, Sulawesi macaques and Sunda gharial crocodiles - will be unveiled in another phase this summer.
Southeast Sulawesi province is one of the sub MP3EI economic corridor, in which the focus of this sub-corridor is to increase the added value of cocoa.
North Sulawesi, Indonesia, Feb 17, 2015 - (ACN Newswire) - The Indian Consulate General Amarjeet Singh Takhi has offered free education scholarships in India to capable students and state officers of North Sulawesi.