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1. the sovereign of a Muslim country, esp of the former Ottoman Empire
2. an arbitrary ruler; despot
3. a small domestic fowl with a white crest and heavily feathered legs and feet: originated in Turkey



the title of a sovereign in Muslim countries. The title of sultan was used in Turkey until 1922, and in Morocco until 1957. Sultans ruled Egypt from the 13th to 16th centuries and from 1914 to 1922. The title is now held by major feudal lords in the Muslim countries of western Africa, by the rulers of Masqat and Oman, and by some tribal chiefs in southern Arabia.

References in periodicals archive ?
Saikol said the sultanate of Kabuntalan had been left out in past historical documents, and this could be the "nth time" it happened.
He urged Maguindanao Representative Bai Sandra Sema, also a descendant of the old sultanate of Kabuntalan, to help correct the same error that has it in historic isolation since the 1596 "Battle of Tampakan" between natives, under Rajah Silongan, and the Spanish expedition of Capitan Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa.
But Saikol also noted that Vic Hurley, author of the book entitled "Swiss of the Kris" mentioned Kabuntalan several times as a sultanate distinct from Maguindanao and Buayan.
Many educated Maguindanaon Muslims have been descendants of the Kabuntalan sultanate - among them, historian Alunan Glang, Carpenter Lauban, former Justice Secretary Simeon Datumanong, former Congressman Didagen Dilangalen, Cotabato City Mayor Guiapal Guiani Jr.
He voiced the Sultanate s concern over the growing protective measures against the Sultanate s exports, which is not at all comparable with the protective measures applied by the Sultanate on its imports.
He affirmed that this package was not the end of the way but rather a start point and that the Sultanate, along with all active stakeholders, will seek to achieve the development goals for the developing countries.
She added that the past years saw an increase in the number of tourists from European countries up to 8 percent in 2014 compared to 2013, noting that the Sultanate received during the first seven months of 2015, about 234 thousand tourists from the European continent, with UK topping list of tourists coming to the Sultanate from Europe, as the Sultanate was visited until July 2015, by 79.
Al-Mahrouqiyahadded that the annual growth in the number of tourists visiting the Sultanate in general is considered the most prominent results of the promotional plans followed by the ministry during the past years, adding that the promotional plans are successful and fruitful and it is expected that Omani Tourism Strategy 2040 would contribute , when released in conjunction with the opening of the important projects in the coming period , like the new Muscat International Airport , Oman Convention and Exhibition Centre and a number of world-class hotels and other tourist projects, which will all contribute to the high number of tourists coming to the Sultanate.
On the other hand, the Sultanate's Tourism Representative Office in Britain won the award of the best tourism representation office in the Middle East, for its significant role in attracting tourists to the Sultanate through the development of marketing programs with major world travel and tourism and aviation companies, in order to highlight the Sultanate as a tourist destination, for its environmental diversity and cultural and historical legacy.
Alison Cryer, Director of the Sultanate's tourism representative office said that the number of British tourists visiting the Sultanate reached 139.
The Sultanate also endeavors to defend its national interests and lands against any infringements because the type of peace promoted by the Sultanate depends on mutual respect and good neighboring.
It is no strange then that the Sultanate has become a model of trust and high credibility with countries of the world.