Suppletion


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Suppletion

 

a means of making word forms and word bases from different roots. As a systemic phenomenon, suppletion is typical of Indo-European languages: examples are Russian ia-menia (“I”–“me”), Lithuanian aš-mane (“I”–“me”), and English “am”–“is.” Instances of suppletion also occur in languages of other genetic groups, for example, Afrikaans is-was (“are”–“was”), Turkish im-dir (“am”–“is”), and Finnish hyvä-parempi (“good”–“better”).

Suppletion in early periods of linguistic development (early suppletion) was caused by the establishment of lexical and grammatical linguistic categories. Later suppletion was caused by phonetic changes in roots and by semantic processes involving the attraction of different roots. The term “suppletion” is also used in a broader sense, to designate a means of word formation. Examples are French tomber-chute (“to fall”–“the fall”), Swedish stjäla-tjuv (“to steal”–“thief”), and English “good”–“well.”

REFERENCES

Konetskaia, V. P. Suppletivizm v germanskikh iazykakh. Moscow, 1973. (Contains bibliography.)
Osthoff, H. Vom Suppletivwesen der indogermanischen Sprachen. Heidelberg, 1899.
Benveniste, E. “Un Fait de supplétisme lexical en indoeuropéen.” In the collection Beiträge zur Indogermanistik und Keltologie. Innsbruck, 1967.

V. P. KONETSKAIA

References in periodicals archive ?
He observes that "the concept of suppletion presupposes the existence of neat paradigms, which are typically observed in inflection rather than in derivation" (2010: 57).
For example, the different directionality levels of at in English are marked via suppletion (from, to, via), whereas those of under are marked via projection and identity ([from] under).
In the domain of data that I am looking at in this paper, there seem to be at least six distinct ways in which direction can be encoded in the adposition/case domain: suppletion, marking, projection, government, reordering and identity.
Likewise, the infinitive TB yatsi 'to go' and the agent noun TB ynuca offer clear evidence that the stem TB i-/yn- was shared by present and nonpresent stems (this fact is also borne out by the old past participle TA inu); the seemingly highly archaic suppletion, the details of which are not shared with Tocharian A, therefore appears to be of rather recent date.
The attempt failed since the loss of eode coincided with the rise of a new sequence involving suppletion, ME go : wente : gone, with the preterite wente 'went' representing the native verb wendan 'turn'.
It is also true that Kielhorn has been overly literal in translating arthavat as "expressing a meaning," with a parenthetical suppletion, since the term itself refers to any speech element that has meaning.
Type I: Single locative verb (or suppletion under grammatical conditioning)
Therefore, we often find the notion of suppletion applicable not only to the CAs of the latter kind but also to those of the former kind.
4), or it can result from person-based suppletion in the form of the verb root (Section 3.
It is not clear whether such processes as defectivity and suppletion are recognized.
The entry does not account for the phonological restrictions to the base: the base must not begin with a vowel or with a sibilant; in these cases suppletion is possible with disor de- (Iacobini, 2004, Section 3.
In the case where "it is not possible to show a relationship between MORPHEMES through a general rule, because the forms involved have different roots", we deal with suppletion (Crystal 1980).