Suppletion

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Suppletion

 

a means of making word forms and word bases from different roots. As a systemic phenomenon, suppletion is typical of Indo-European languages: examples are Russian ia-menia (“I”–“me”), Lithuanian aš-mane (“I”–“me”), and English “am”–“is.” Instances of suppletion also occur in languages of other genetic groups, for example, Afrikaans is-was (“are”–“was”), Turkish im-dir (“am”–“is”), and Finnish hyvä-parempi (“good”–“better”).

Suppletion in early periods of linguistic development (early suppletion) was caused by the establishment of lexical and grammatical linguistic categories. Later suppletion was caused by phonetic changes in roots and by semantic processes involving the attraction of different roots. The term “suppletion” is also used in a broader sense, to designate a means of word formation. Examples are French tomber-chute (“to fall”–“the fall”), Swedish stjäla-tjuv (“to steal”–“thief”), and English “good”–“well.”

REFERENCES

Konetskaia, V. P. Suppletivizm v germanskikh iazykakh. Moscow, 1973. (Contains bibliography.)
Osthoff, H. Vom Suppletivwesen der indogermanischen Sprachen. Heidelberg, 1899.
Benveniste, E. “Un Fait de supplétisme lexical en indoeuropéen.” In the collection Beiträge zur Indogermanistik und Keltologie. Innsbruck, 1967.

V. P. KONETSKAIA

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In case the constitutional text is incomplete or ignores extremely necessary institutions, it is completed through the jurisprudential manner, the so-called suppletive jurisprudence (Danisor, 2003: 125).
Additionally there are a few verbs with stems that to a varying degree are highly irregular or suppletive.
Koshiishi (2010: 1) defines a collateral adjective as a "Latinate suppletive relational adjective" (where Latinate is intended to include Greek-derived).
NEAR comes in between IN, ON and the bigger group to the left (because of the suppletive encoding of ROUTE, through past).
According to that last Council new rules concerning the competences of the European Union had been implemented: any action of the Union should be reduced to minimum and should be proportional with the concerned objective; the member states should always have had a margin scheme even for the domains without exclusive competences, but on the condition of not coming against any concerned objective; the guidelines and recommendations should be priviledged in relation to regulations; communitarian actions should have had a suppletive nature, supportive and not a substitutive one.
Le clerge argentina tourne son regard vers le Quebec un moment crucial de son evolution politique pour se representer une forme de corporatisme chretien pouvant reconcilier la politique d'un chef populiste avec le respect de la fonction suppletive de l'Eglise catholique telle qu'enoncee dans les encycliques pontificales.
to introduce direct speech, although these are considered to form a suppletive aspectual pair (like Russian govorit'-skazat'), is noteworthy.
Le clerge argentin a tourne son regard vers le Quebec a un moment crucial de son evolution politique pour se representer une forme de corporatisme chretien pouvant reconcilier la politique d'un chef populiste avec le respect de la fonction suppletive de l'Eglise catholique telle qu'enoncee dans les encycliques pontificales.
Usually no gender or number differentiation occurs, but a number of verbs show irregular formations (Table 19), some of them radically suppletive, and a number of them forming perfective with -t.
This was eventually replicated by the suppletive rules of early companies legislation, and the articles of companies incorporated thereunder.
But structuralism is right to imply that, for example, went as a suppletive preterite of go must mean something different from what *goed would mean, if it existed.
A suppletive allomorph's use may be conditioned by grammatical or phonological context, or a combination.