Surface Runoff

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surface runoff

[′sər·fəs ′rən‚ȯf]
(hydrology)
Runoff that moves over the soil surface to the nearest surface stream.

Surface runoff

The precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored in small surface depressions; a major transporter of non-point-source pollutants in rivers, streams and lakes.

Surface Runoff

 

movement of water across the earth’s surface owing to the force of gravity. A distinction is made between sheet flow and channel flow. Sheet flow is made up of rain and meltwater and moves down slopes, without fixed channels. Channel flow occurs in definite linear directions, in the channels of rivers and bottoms of ravines and gulleys. Subterranean water and groundwater sometimes also form part of channel flow.

Surface runoff is described by the volume of water flowing across a surface (the modulus of runoff) and is expressed either as l/sec/km2 or as a depth in mm per year or some other period. In the USSR, the lowest modulus of runoff— in the arid regions of the Middle Asian plain— is 0–1 l/sec/km2, while the highest goes up to 125 l/sec/km2, in the mountains of the Western Caucasus. Surface runoff varies over time. The average annual modulus of runoff in the Vorskla River basin is 2.1 l/sec/km2, but the maximum figure, during spring high water, is 220 l/sec/km2. In the Primor’e, where the modulus of average runoff is 8-15 l/sec/km2, the maximum modulus of direct runoff reaches 600–700 l/sec/km2, and sometimes even more than 1,000 l/sec/km2.

K. G. TIKHOTSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
This would signifi-cantly reduce the uncontrolled surface run off of water that causes waterways and rivers to flood.
Surface run off is also an issueConstruct suitable crossfall to resolve surface run off and seal road.
Tenders are invited for Raising the yard level and plinths to lead the surface run off collected in the cable duct and yard to the adjacent odai at proposed 110/22 KV Sub Station at Selampalayam
Contract Notice: The design and construction of a surface water collection system consisting of linear channel drainage on Brougham Street and connection to a carrier pipeline through land owned by the Peel Ports Authority to discharge surface run off to the Firth of Clyde.
Tenders are invited for Design, Engineering, Construction, procurement, Inspection, supply, erection, testing, commissioning and establishment of performance guarantee parameters of Effluent Treatment Plants for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium from Mine Effluent and Surface run off with one year operation & maintenance on a turnkey basis of Quarry-D & Quarry-F in South Kaiiapani Mines of OMC Limited in the district of Jajpur, Odisha.
Tenders are invited for construction of surface drain within the swimming pool to drain out surface run off at ae block new town kolkata.
Tenders are invited for Construction of duct for electrical / communication cables connectivity across Panchkuian Road and catchment sump for surface run off water in connection with Redevelopment of Connaught Place.
Other inefficient practice such as plantation of maize in steep outward terrace has also led to significant loss of topsoil thus increasing surface run off.