Staryi Krym(redirected from Surkhat)
a city in Kirovskoe Raion, Crimean Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. Staryi Krym is situated 26 km east of Feodosiia and 100 km from Simferopol’ on the Simferopol’-Feodosiia highway. The city has a plant producing reinforced-concrete products, a clothing factory, and enterprises of the food-processing industry. The writer A. S. Grin lived in Staryi Krym from 1930 until his death, in 1932, a fact commemorated by the A. S. Grin House-Museum. Staryi Krym is a climatic health resort. Summers are warm, with a mean July temperature of 21°C, and winters are very mild, with a mean January temperature of -2°C. Precipitation totals 510 mm a year. The city has a sanatorium for the treatment of those suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis.
Staryi Krym arose before the conquest of the Crimea by the Mongol-Tatars in the 13th century. It was called Solkhat until the 14th century and Eski-Krym until the Russian conquest of the Crimea (1783). The city became a center of the Crimean Ulus (Appanage) of the Golden Horde in the 13th century, and coins bearing the names of the khans were minted there. From the 13th to 15th centuries, Staryi Krym was a transit city for caravan trade routes between the Genoese city of Kaffa (present-day Feodosiia) and both ancient Russian principalities (by way of the Pere-kop Isthmus) and Middle Asia (by way of the Volga Region).
Architectural monuments include the remains of mosques, including the one built by Khan Uzbek in 1314, a mint, and a 14th-century caravansary. The ruins of the Armenian Surb-Khach Monastery, founded in the 14th century, with frescoes dating from the late 14th and early 15th centuries, are 5 km southwest of Staryi Krym.
REFERENCESDorogoi tysiacheletii: Ekskursii po srednevekovomu Krymu. Simferopol’, 1966.
Dombrovskii, O. I. Freskisrednevekovogo Kryma. Kiev, 1966.
an urban-type settlement in Donetsk Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, under the jurisdiction of the Il’ichevskii raion soviet of the city of Zhdanov. Staryi Krym is situated 7 km from the Zhdanov-Gruzovoi railroad station. A large part of the population works at enterprises in Zhdanov. Granite is quarried in the area.