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(Sanskrit, “home rule”), a programmatic political slogan advanced by the national liberation movement in India, a slogan that called for struggle against British rule and for home rule.

Originating in the early 20th century, Swaraj was adopted as a programmatic demand for the first time in 1906, at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress, or Congress Party. In 1920 the Nagpur session of the Congress Party declared that the attainment of swaraj was the party’s fundamental aim. However, swaraj meant different things to different groups within the Congress Party. The moderates urged a struggle for limited home rule within the British Empire; the radicals, on the other hand, regarded full independence for India as the principal goal of their struggle.

In 1929 the Lahore session of the Congress Party declared its task to be the achievement of “full swaraj” (puma swaraj). However, nuances in the interpretation of swaraj persisted. Rightists in the national liberation movement understood swaraj to mean dominion status for India; leftists, such as J. Nehru and S. C. Bose, understood it to mean full independence for India.

References in periodicals archive ?
Swaraj had in June confessed that she helped Modi get British travel documents on humanitarian grounds as he wanted to be with his ailing wife who was undergoing cancer treatment at a Portuguese hospital.
According to the British media report which quoted leaked emails, Indian-origin British MP Keith Vaz cited the name of Ms Swaraj to put pressure on UK's top immigration official to grant British travel papers to Lalit Modi, who subsequently got the documents in less than 24 hours.
plz help', Sushma Swaraj asked Omar Abdullah to attend to the crisis brewing in the district.
Oli's foreign minister, Thapa and Swaraj came up with four points on a piece of paper that carried enough ambiguity to help the Indians maintain that their blockade was not a blockade.
Kathmandu [Nepal] Feb 2 ( ANI ): External Affairs Minister (EAM) Sushma Swaraj on Friday met with Nepal Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba here and congratulated him on the successful conduct of the recent elections.
Swaraj,' Rohaan's mother Mehwish Mukhtar had tweeted.
Tweeting about Swaraj Abhiyan, Yadav said, " Swaraj Abhiyan to continue as campaign org after formation of the party.
India is trying to create an environment to resume dialogue between the two countries, Swaraj said in response to Pakistan stating that India was running away from talks.
The attack in Punjab, the first major such act since the Mumbai November 26, 2008 terror attack, may have given Swaraj a fresh lease of life.
Sweden, March 7 -- Indian External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj yesterday evening called on President Maithripala Sirisena at his Wijerama residence .
Tenders are invited for Spare Parts Of Swaraj Fork Lift 01 Set Equal To 05 Nos.
Sushma Swaraj, BJP's Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha, pumped up Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi's political aspirations on Sunday by saying that he is a perfect candidate for the prime minster post.