Swedish language


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Swedish language,

member of the North Germanic, or Scandinavian, group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-EuropeanIndo-European,
family of languages having more speakers than any other language family. It is estimated that approximately half the world's population speaks an Indo-European tongue as a first language.
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 family of languages. It is the official language of Sweden and one of the official languages of Finland, and it is spoken by about 9 million people: 8,500,000 in Sweden and 500,000 elsewhere, chiefly in Finland, Norway, and Estonia. A descendant of Old Norse (see Germanic languagesGermanic languages,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by about 470 million people in many parts of the world, but chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
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; NorseNorse,
another name for the North Germanic, or Scandinavian, group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). The modern Norse languages—Danish, Faeroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish—all stem from an earlier
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), the Swedish language falls into two major periods historically: Old Swedish, the early form of the language (usually dated from the 9th cent. to the early 16th cent.), and New Swedish, the modern form of the language (since the early 16th cent.). The Swedish language underwent many changes during the Middle Ages but began to be standardized in the 16th cent. as a result of such events as the throwing off of Danish domination, the Reformation, and the translation of the Bible into Swedish. In 1786 the Swedish Academy was established to oversee the development of the language. Swedish absorbed a number of words from Low German in the Middle Ages, from High German in the 16th and 17th cent., from French in the 18th cent., and from English in the 20th cent. On the whole, Swedish grammar is simple. The noun has only the singular, possessive, and plural forms. There are two genders for nouns, a nonneuter (or common) class and a neuter class. The former includes masculine, feminine, and common nouns; the latter, nouns for such categories as countries and substances and also many abstract nouns. Swedish is noted for its musical quality. This results partly from the use of pitch accents, which sometimes serve to differentiate the meanings of homonyms. There is considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of Swedish. For example, a number of inflections used in literary Swedish are not employed in the spoken language. Until the early 13th cent., runesrunes,
ancient characters used in Teutonic, Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian inscriptions. They were probably first used by the East Goths (c.300), who are thought to have derived them from Helleno-Italic writing.
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 were used for recording Swedish, but thereafter (as Christianity took hold in Scandinavia) they began to be replaced by the Roman alphabet, to which three symbols, å, ä, and ö, have been added.

Bibliography

See G. Bergman, A Short History of the Swedish Language (tr. 1947); I. Björkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar (9th ed. 1962); F. Frauchiger and W. R. van Buskirk, Spoken Swedish (1980).

References in periodicals archive ?
She's also starting to get to grips with the Swedish language.
The service provider must be able to provide the service in a smooth Swedish language.
The documents include records of Red Cross from 1971 to 75 containing important information on the homecoming of the refugees, including those who were stranded in Pakistan during the war, documents of Rotarian International on refugees, original copies of the reports published in different international newspapers in the last 17 days of December in 1971 and some reports of the Venstakusten newspaper published in Swedish language, the release added.
The documents include records of the Red Cross from 1971 to 1975 containing important information on the homecoming of the refugees, including those who were stranded in Pakistan during the war, documents of Rotarian International on refugees, original copies of the reports published in different international newspapers in the last 17 days of December 1971 and some reports of the Venstakusten newspaper published in Swedish language, the release added.
In 19 he graduated from the Swedish language and literature at the University of Groningen and in the same year she joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA).
The authors sought to translate this measure into the Swedish language for use in the Swedish healthcare system.
Their topics include constructing "language" in language policy discourse: Finnish and Swedish legislative processes during the 2000s, multi-sited historical arguments and language ideologies regarding language rights of the Russian-speaking minority in Finland, a retrospective view on Swedish language policies for Finnish in Sweden, and ethnic activism and the emergence of a new policy discourse on teaching non-Swedish mother tongues in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s.
For example, there were seven identical Swedish language books by Stephen Fry, all next to each other.
But he added that "there is often a transition period between different cultures" that the government had sought to facilitate by improving Swedish language education.
Our herring loving Scandinavian cousins have a watchdog to protect their mother tongue and in December the Swedish Language Council unveiled its annual list of new Swedish words which had organically crept into everyday usage.
The Swedish Language Council created their own term for "not being able to find something using an Internet search engine" but Google was unhappy with their definition and now the company and country are fighting over a word.
Lucky Farmhouse, a Swedish model, in her deposition before the Interpol in November 2010 in Swedish language, subsequently translated in English in September 2011, spoke about Roy " Boss" Naik's alleged involvement in the case.

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