synagogue

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synagogue

(sĭn`əgŏg) [Gr.,=assembly], in Judaism, a place of assembly for worship, education, and communal affairs. The origins of the institution are unclear. One tradition dates it to the Babylonian exile of the 6th cent. B.C. The returnees may have brought back with them the basic structure that was to be developed by the 1st cent. A.D. into a well-defined institution around which Jewish religious, intellectual, and communal life was to be centered from this earliest period into the present. Other scholars believe the synagogue arose after the Hasmonean revolt (167–164 B.C.) as a Pharisaic alternative to the Temple cult. The destruction of the Temple (A.D. 70) and the Diaspora over the following centuries increased the synagogue's importance. Services in the synagogue were conducted in a simpler manner than in the Temple. There was no officially appointed priest, the services being conducted by a chazan (reader). The role the synagogue played in preserving Judaism intact through the centuries cannot be overestimated, nor can its influence as an intellectual and cultural force. In the modern period, the reform movement restricted its scope to almost purely religious purposes, although among the Orthodox Jews its purview did not diminish. In more recent times the synagogue has again taken on its former functions as a social and communal center. The architectural appearance of the synagogue has usually not differed from that of local non-Jewish forms. The interior includes an ark in which the Torah scrolls are held and a platform from which they are read. In modern times, a pulpit from which to preach has also become common, and in many synagogues the three are combined on one platform. In the United States, the national synagogue associations, the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations, the United Synagogue of America (Conservative), and the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (Reform) are organized in the Synagogue Council of America.

Bibliography

See U. Kaploun, ed., The Synagogue (1973); A. Eisenberg, The Synagogue through the Ages (1974); C. H. Krinsky, Synagogues of Europe (1987).

Synagogue

A place of assembly, or a building for Jewish worship and religious instruction.

Synagogue

 

in Judaism, a community of believers and a house of worship. Synagogues originated in Palestine in the fourth century B.C. and in Egypt in the third century B.C. After the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans in A.D. 70 and the expansion of the Diaspora, synagogues were established wherever Jews lived. The first synagogues were instrumental in the growth of monotheism.

Religious services take place in the synagogue, and the Bible and Talmud are read and discussed. In the Middle Ages, deviation from the dogmas of Judaism resulted in excommunication from the synagogue. Both Uriel Acosta and Spinoza were excommunicated.

The architecture of synagogues varies greatly. The common features are a rectangular shape, three or five aisles, an ark of the law at the eastern wall in which the scrolls of the Torah are kept and, in front of the ark, a raised platform for the reading of sacred texts.

REFERENCE

Wischnitzer, R. The Architecture of the European Synagogue. Philadelphia, Pa., 1964.

synagogue

A place of assembly for Jewish worship.

synagogue

1. 
a. a building for Jewish religious services and usually also for religious instruction
b. (as modifier): synagogue services
2. a congregation of Jews who assemble for worship or religious study
3. the religion of Judaism as organized in such congregations
References in periodicals archive ?
Hans-Ulrich Weidemann, profesor de Nuevo Testamento en la Facultad de Teologia catolica de la universidad de Siegen, investiga las nociones de ekklesia, polis y synagoge en los escritos de Peterson y en el debate teologico actual.
We may note that Philo calls the Essenes' association a synagoge, (7) and we hear of a "synagogue of the Freedmen" in Acts 6:9.
Cicero similarly credits Corax and Tisias as the founders of rhetoric, his source being, presumably, the Synagoge Technae, a lost work of Aristotle's: "Thus Aristotle says that in Sicily, after the expulsion of tyrants, when after a long interval restitution of private property was sought by legal means, Corax and Tisias the Sicilians, with the acuteness and controversial habit of their people, first put together some theoretical precepts"; Brutus, trans.
There is abundant literary and archaeological evidence of the existence of the proseuche, house of prayer, or the synagoge, house of gathering, the Greek terms used to describe the ancient Jewish house of worship.
Frederik Oudschans Dentz, "Water Overbleef van het Kerkhof en de Synagoge van de Joden-Savanne in Suriname," De West-Indische Gids 7-8 (July-August 1948): 210-25.
the narrator's static, noun-based description of the effects of Reichskristallnacht: 'die ausgebrannte Synagoge, mit einem zerbrochenen Davidstern am guBeisernen Tor' (TW, p.
Schlatter, Synagoge und Kirche bis zum BarKochba-Aufstand (Stuttgart, 1966), pp.
Telfy, Synagoge ton attikon nomon, corpus iuris attici (Leipzig, 1868).
The synagoge and the ekklesia both typically met in plenary sessions for prayer, to read and
There are in science three fundamentally different kinds of reasoning, Deductio (called by Aristotle synagoge or anagoge), Induction (Aristotle's and Plato's xpagogn), and Retroduction (Aristotle's apanone, but misunderstood because of corrupt text, and, as misunderstood, usually translated abduction).
Freilich erreichte das Journal nur ein begrenztes jUdisches Lesepublikum ausserhalb der Synagoge und wurde von der rabbinischen Elite als sakulare Provokation und Untergrabung ihrer Autoritat auf das scharfste bekampft.
Scholars explain that, while our imagination conjures up a building when we hear the word synagogue, the original Greek term synagoge actually means an assembly or a congregation of people.