synecdoche

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synecdoche

(sĭnĕk`dəkē), figure of speech, a species of metaphormetaphor
[Gr.,=transfer], in rhetoric, a figure of speech in which one class of things is referred to as if it belonged to another class. Whereas a simile states that A is like B, a metaphor states that A is B or substitutes B for A.
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, in which a part of a person or thing is used to designate the whole—thus, "The house was built by 40 hands" for "The house was built by 20 people." See metonymymetonymy
, figure of speech in which an attribute of a thing or something closely related to it is substituted for the thing itself. Thus, "sweat" can mean "hard labor," and "Capitol Hill" represents the U.S. Congress.
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Synecdoche

 

a figure of speech and variant of metonymy by which the whole is made known by means of a part. There are two types of synecdoche. In the first, the whole is represented by a, part, which replaces the whole. For example, “Hey, beard! how can I get from here to Pliushkin’s?” (N. Gogol). Here the meanings of “man with a beard,” “bearded one” (“villein”), and “beard” are combined. In the second type of synecdoche, one grammatical number is used instead of the other: “And until dawn the Frenchman [the French] could be heard rejoicing” (M. Iu. Lermontov).

References in periodicals archive ?
2-13 synechdoche (adjective and modifier or Genetive and possessive)
This is given its most emblematic and subtractive equation in the editing process as the scale of the battle becomes progressively narrowed from the scope of two clashing armies to the synechdoche of two individual soldiers writhing helplessly in the sodden earth.
It is reflected in the ancient custom of the rabbis who used the name Moses as synechdoche for the Torah commandments "Moses says.
Constructing irreconcilable conflict: The function of synechdoche in the spotted owl controversy.
More conventional historians may find themselves spending time with dictionaries to clarify terms such as metonym, synechdoche, and aporia.
White's Metahistory (1973) invoked formalist critics Northrop Frye and Kenneth Burke, as well as Giambattista Vico and Friedrich Nietzsche, to contend that historians impose narrative order upon an essentially chaotic past; that historical narratives rely upon some archetypal plot form, such as Romance, Tragedy, Comedy, or Satire; that each narrative is centered on a particular master trope: metaphor, metonymy, synechdoche, or irony; and that these narrative forms hold an ideological content, namely the legitimation of some social center or state apparatus.
Finally, Dalloway forcibly grabs and kisses Rachel while they are both passengers on her father's ship; this sexual violation functions in Rachel's psyche and in the novel as a whole as a synechdoche for rape and sexual abuse of women, as I will discuss below.
12) Thus, even if the name of the first person can, by synechdoche, name the Trinity, the word [Greek Text Omitted] has at least as much scriptural warrant for this role as does the word [Greek Text Omitted].
The second figure of speech (of the mouth and the heart), besides being a cliche steeped in a rhetorical tradition, is actually a synechdoche which fragments the very body which its meaning would like to represent as whole and proper.
Far from being made into a synechdoche for a more general primitivism, their lives were inquired into at the micrological level.
In fact some even come to represent the other: "as reduction (metonymy) overlaps upon metaphor (perspective) so likewise it overlaps upon synechdoche (representation)" (Grammar of Motives 507).
The few metaphors of the Poema del Cid are unobtrusive, including cliches such as "treacherous dogs" applied to villains or "white as the sun" applied to women, and occasional expressions combining metaphor and metonymy such as "my right arm" referring to a valued second in command, in which the synechdoche (a class of metonym) "arm" is understood through both tropes as a source of power, authority, and so on, and pre-empts any need to introduce words denoting those abstractions.