Taborites

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Taborites:

see HussitesHussites
, followers of John Huss. After the burning of Huss (1415) and Jerome of Prague (1416), the Hussites continued as a powerful group in Bohemia and Moravia. They drew up (1420) the Four Articles of Prague, demanding freedom of preaching, communion in both kinds (i.e.
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Taborites

 

members of the revolutionary antifeudal wing of the Hussite revolutionary movement. The Taborite Community (hence the name Taborites) was made up of heterogeneous social elements: broad strata of the peasantry, the urban poor, the lower clergy, artisans, and a segment of the lower gentry.

Basic to Taborite thinking, especially in the first period of the movement, was the revolutionary antifeudal peasant and plebeian ideology, the basis of which was the chiliastic teaching about “god’s kingdom on earth,” a kingdom of universal equality and social justice. The Taborites rejected the sacraments of the church and the luxuriant Catholic cult, and some rejected all of the Christian sacred rites and ceremonies. The left wing of the movement was made up of the Pickarts, who were opposed by the moderate Taborites, favoring primarily the interests of the prosperous peasants and well-to-do townsmen. In 1421 the moderate Taborites cruelly dealt with the leaders of the Pickarts (Martin Houska, for example).

In spite of disagreements, the Taborites remained the major military force in rebellious Bohemia. They created a field army under the command of Jan Žižka and developed advanced military tactics that provided for maneuverability and the use of battle wagons and artillery. The Taborite army, led by Mikuláš z Husi, Žižka, and Prokop the Great, soundly defeated five crusades organized by the anti-Hussite reaction. Along with the “orphans,” as the troops who had served under Žižka’s direct command called themselves after his death, the Taborites made a series of marches outside Bohemia. The Taborites’ disagreements with the burgher and knight elements (the Calixtines, or Utraquists) led to an open war between them. In a number of battles in 1423 and 1424 the Calixtines were defeated. On May 30, 1434, however, the Taborite army suffered a defeat at the hands of the united forces of the Calixtines and the feudal Catholic camp in a battle at Lipany; individual Taborite detachments continued the fight until 1437, when their last fortress, Sion, fell.

REFERENCES

See references under HUSSITE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT.

B. T. RUBTSOV

References in periodicals archive ?
1380-1434) were the main leaders of the group that the historiographical tradition refers to as Taborites.
Even the dating of Atwood is more correct than Molnar, it is a fact that the writings of Chelcicky point to his separation from both Utraquists and Taborites.
Just remembering the hymn sung by the Taborites presented above.
21) Nonetheless, we know that in addition to peasants, there were village magistrates, grooms, potters, priests, servants, barbers, carpenters, town councillors, cobblers, blacksmiths, burghers, and cooks involved in Taborite activities.
30) Thus the Taborite leaders instructed the people to cease paying rents and being subject to their lords.
The main body of the book focuses on the heretical wing in the reformation movement, which usually goes under the name of Taborites (with their affiliates the Orebites) and is marked by a rejection of substantial parts of medieval dogma and liturgy.
43) In this cosmic duel against the vile "princes of the earth", the radical reformers of the early 16th century were acting in the traditions of famous precursors, such as the Hussite Taborites.
A critical change took place when the secular State allied with reformist groups--in order to push back papal influence--and, crucially, to counter the radical totalist heterodoxies such as the early Joachites, Taborites or Anabaptists, whose victory would have meant a complete and total transformation of society.
In the medieval Christian tradition, this leads to the book of the Apocalypse and the "Thousand Years of Happiness" which would follow Christ's triumphant return at the end of time--a belief developed for instance in the millenarianism of Joachim of Fiore (in the 12th century) and in the 15th century Taborites of Bohemia.
Although he makes a careful distinction between primitive millenarianisms and modern revolutionisms, Hobsbawm nevertheless emphasizes their elective relationship (or affinity): `Even the least millenarian modern revolutionaries have in them a streak of "impossibilism" which makes them cousins to the Taborites and Anabaptists, a kinship which they have never denied.
Perhaps the most remarkable figure in Czech history; a brave and valiant warrior, he was a gifted strategist and an innovative and resourceful tactician; the core of the military system he created for the Taborites was the Wagenburg, a series of stout wooden wagons with crossbows or light cannon mounted in them, chained together, with pikemen, handgunners, and crossbowmen stationed in the gaps, creating an unusually strong position, one which repeatedly frustrated Sigismund's knights; of necessity the system was tactically defensive, although success was usually crowned with a welltimed counterattack, and much of Ziska's brilliant reputation rested on his marriage of the tactical defense with the strategic offense.
In the end, the movement suffered defeat as a result of internal conflict between the radical Taborites and the more moderate Prague wing.