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Taganrog(təgənrôk`), city (1989 pop. 292,000), S European Russia, on the Gulf of Taganrog, an arm of the Sea of Azov. It is a port, exporting mainly grains and coal. Metallurgy, combine and automobile assembly, ship repairing, leather working, commercial fishing, agricultural processing, and the manufacture of heavy machinery and furniture are the city's major industries. A Pisan colony on the site was destroyed by the Mongols in the 13th cent.; Turks later settled there. In 1698, Peter the Great founded Taganrog as a fortress and naval base. The Turks recaptured it twice (1712 and 1739), but it was taken by the Russians in 1769 and definitively ceded by Turkey in the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji (1774). Superseded by Odessa in the late 19th cent. as a major grain exporter, Taganrog retained importance as a military and naval base and a manufacturing city. Landmarks include the imperial palace (now an historical museum) in which Czar Alexander I reportedly died and a memorial museum at the home of the writer Anton Chekhov, who was born in Taganrog.
a city under oblast jurisdiction in Rostov Oblast, RSFSR; port on the northeastern shore of the Gulf of Taganrog of the Sea of Azov. Railroad station. Population, 277,000 (1975; 51,000 in 1897, 189,000 in 1939, 202,000 in 1959, and 254,000 in 1970). The city is divided into three raions.
Taganrog was founded by Peter I in 1698 on Cape Tagan-Rog as a fortress and base for the Russian Azov Naval Fleet. In February 1712 it was razed under the conditions of the Prut Peace Treaty (1711). It was finally occupied by Russian troops in 1769 and became part of Russia in accordance with the Treaty of Ku-chuk Kainarji (1774). After the founding of Sevastopol’, it lost its significance as a naval base.
In 1775, Taganrog became a city in Azov Province. Beginning in the 1780’s, it was an important port for foreign trade. It became an administrative center in 1802. In 1855, during the Crimean War, it was attacked several times by the Anglo-French fleet.
In 1869, Taganrog was joined by rail with Kharkov and Rostov-on-Don. In the 1890’s factories producing metals, boilers, leather goods, and machinery were constructed; they employed approximately 6,000 workers in 1900. From 1887 to 1920, Taganrog was a district capital of the Oblast of the Don Host. Soviet power was established on Jan. 19 (Feb. 1), 1918. In May 1918, Taganrog was occupied by German troops; later it was seized by the White Guard troops of General Denikin. It was liberated in January 1920 by the First Horse Cavalry Army. From 1920 to 1924, Taganrog was a district capital of Donetsk Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. In 1924 it became part of North Caucasus Krai, in 1934 of Azov-Black Sea Krai, and in 1937 of Rostov Oblast. From Oct. 17, 1941, through Aug. 30, 1943, Taganrog was occupied by fascist German troops.
Taganrog is an important industrial center of the Soviet south. It has more than 40 industrial enterprises, which produce approximately one-sixth of the oblast’s industrial output. The metallurgical plant manufactures steel, rolled metal, and tubing for the petroleum and gas industry. Other factories and plants account for more than 60 percent of the total volume of production. They include the Krasnyi Kotel’shchik Plant, factories for the production of machines, metal products, and combines, shipyards, a plant for the production of forging and pressing equipment, and a factory for the production of electrothermal equipment. The food industry is represented by the processing of fish and meat, flour milling, and the production of sweets. Leather goods and footwear and building materials are also manufactured.
Taganrog has electrical engineering and pedagogical institutes, as well as technicums for metallurgy, mechanics, marine instrument-making, machine building, and construction and schools of medicine and music. The city also has a drama theater, a museum of local lore, a picture gallery, and the A. P. Chekhov Museum (Chekhov was born in Taganrog) and its branch the Chekhov House.
REFERENCESTaganrog: Istoriko-kraevedcheskii ocherk. Rostov-on-Don, 1971.
Chekhovskie mesta v Taganroge [Putevoditel’], 2nd ed. Rostov-on-Don, 1959.