Tannaim


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Tannaim

(tänä`ĭm) [plural of Aramaic tanna,=one who studies or teaches], Jewish sages of the period from HillelHillel,
fl. c.30 B.C.–A.D. 10, Jewish scholar, regarded as the forebear of the later patriarchs who led the Jews of Palestine until c.A.D. 400. The Jerusalem Talmud calls him the president of the Sanhedrin.
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 to the compilation of the MishnaMishna
, in Judaism, codified collection of Oral Law—legal interpretations of portions of the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and other legal material. Together with the Gemara, or Amoraic commentary on the Mishna, it comprises the Talmud.
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. They functioned as both scholars and teachers, educating those in the synagogues as well as in the academies. Their opinions are found either in the Mishna or as collected in the ToseftaTosefta
, plural Toseftoth [Aramaic,=additional], collection of ancient Jewish teachings supplementing the Mishna or Oral Law and closely allied to it in organization. Like the Mishna, it was compiled by the Tannaim.
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. After the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple (A.D. 70), Johanan ben ZakkaiJohanan ben Zakkai
, leader of the Pharisees of Jerusalem before the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70, afterward founder of the Jewish academy at Jamnia. He emphasized the study of the Torah as the primary religious duty for which humankind was created. After A.D.
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 reconstituted the academy at Jabneh (see JamniaJamnia
, biblical Jabneel and Jabneh [Heb.,=God causes to build], ancient city, central Israel. Its modern name is Yavne. A central city of Philistia, the Bible refers to its walls being destroyed by Uzziah. It was pillaged by Judas Maccabaeus and later rebuilt.
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), where the work of the Tannaim flourished. Akiba ben JosephAkiba ben Joseph
, c.A.D. 50–c.A.D. 135, Jewish Palestinian religious leader, one of the founders of rabbinic Judaism. Although the facts of his life are obscured by legend, he is said to have been a poor and illiterate shepherd who began his rabbinic studies at the age of
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 was among their disciples. The final compilation and redaction of the opinions and rulings of the tannaim was carried out c.200 under the administration of Judah ha-NasiJudah ha-Nasi
, c.135–c.220, Palestinian Jewish communal leader (tanna). He occupied the office of patriarch (nasi) which was reestablished by the Romans after 135.
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, and resulted in the Mishna, which is accorded canonical status and forms the basis for all subsequent rabbinic discussions. The Tannaim were succeeded by the AmoraimAmoraim
[Heb. amar=to interpret], in Judaism, term referring to those scholars, predominantly at Caesarea and Tiberias in Palestine (c.A.D. 220–c.A.D. 375) and in Babylonia (c.A.D. 200–c.A.D.
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.

Bibliography

See H. L. Strack, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash (1931, repr. 1969).

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Had we the benefit of the Tannaim, the great compilers of the Mishnah, still ambling in our midst today, you can be sure that rather than a cheerful "I should work out more in 2018" we would've received a new Talmudic tomeTractate Crossfit, perhapsdetailing precisely how many workouts a week are advised, and which blessing must be recited upon munching on a Kind bar.
thesis that the tendency of the Tannaim was to make every effort to vindicate the patriarchs, while the Amoraim frequently allowed themselves to be more critical.
Proselytizing in the First Five Centuries of the Common Era, the Age of Tannaim and Amoraim.
Y asi se fue avanzando hacia los sabios de la Mishna, los tannaim, que pasaron la antorcha a los amoraim del Talmud, a los savoraira postalmudicos, a los gueonim que florecieron alrededor del ano 700, a los risbonim del medioevo tardio y a los ajaronim de comienzos de la era moderna.
14) The term halakha was first employed by the early Rabbis (called Tannaim, approximately 10-220 C.
Thus the Tannaim directed: "One should always sell all one possesses in order to marry the daughter of a scholar.
He suggests that the Talmudic approach to monarchy contrasts with that found in the Bible, and sets it within the context of the royal rule the tannaim knew first-hand, that of the Roman Empire.
and that is the watershed between the Tannaic and the Amoraic periods, so named after the Tannaim (sages whose teachings appear in the Mishnah) and the Amoraim (sages whose teachings appear in the Talmud but not in the Mishnah).
The ketubah was developed during periods of the Tannaim and Amoraim and, as the rest of the scrolls of this time, was written in Aramaic which was then spoken language.
Now with the possible exception of Abba Shaul, tannaim took Deuteronomy's yibbum law at face value: "her levir [=brother-in-law] shall go in unto her and make her his wife and perform his levirate duty by her.
Basola goes out of his way to stand at the reputed graves of Yocheved, Tzipporah, Elisheva, Yishal, the father of King David, Zevulun, and others, along with those Tannaim and Amoraim such as Hillel, Shammai, Rabbis Elazar ben Azariah, Akiva, Tarfon, Shimon ben Gamaliel, Huna, and Chiyya.
Though these periods correspond with (approximate) chronological periods (the period of the tannaim lasted from the beginning of the common era to about 200; that of the amoraim from about 200-600, and that of the rishonim from about 1000-1400), the demarcations denote as much hermeneutic function as historical periodization.