Polymerase

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polymerase

[pə′lim·ə‚rās]
(biochemistry)
An enzyme that links nucleotides together to form polynucleotide chains.

Polymerase

 

(nucleotidyltransferase), an enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the synthesis of nucleic acids from nucleoside triphosphates in the presence of DNA or RNA, which serves as the template. The synthesis of a new chain of DNA (replication) or RNA (transcription) on a DNA template is accomplished with strict adherence to the principle of complementarity.

The action of polymerases involves the transfer of a molecule of ribonucleoside or deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate to the end of a chain of RNA or DNA that is being synthesized, which results in extension of the chain and liberation of a molecule of pyrophosphate. The synthesis of RNA catalyzed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase takes place on one of the chains of the double—helical DNA template. The newly synthesized polyribonucleotide branches from the DNA template as a single thread. The synthesis of DNA takes place simultaneously on both chains of a previously uncoiled DNA template.

The discovery and isolation of DNA polymerase in 1956 by the American scientist A. Romberg enabled him to be the first to carry out the synthesis of active DNA in a test tube.

REFERENCES

Kornberg, A. “Puti fermentativnogo sinteza nukleotidov i polinukleotidov.” In Khimicheskie osnovy nasledstvennosti. Moscovi 1960. (Translated from English.)
Davidson, J. Biokhimiia nukleinovykh kislot. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)

L. S. KHAILOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
A universal two-step PCR assay was used throughout these studies, with the activation of hot-start Taq polymerase for 15 min at 94[degrees]C, followed by a two-step PCR protocol for 40 cycles (15 s of denaturation at 94[degrees]C and 1 min at 60[degrees]C with fluorescent data acquisition at 60[degrees]C during the combined annealing-extension step).
The combination of blocked-cleavable rhPCR primers, an enhanced Taq polymerase, and a universal reporter system significantly increase specificity and boost signal, enabling the method to very accurately discriminate among extremely similar sequences.
5 u l of Taq Polymerase (5U/ul), 5 u l of 10X Taq buffer, 1 u l of each type specific primers P[1], P[5] and P[11] and an upstream primer Con2 and RNase-free water to final volume of 50 l, and subjected to nested multiplex PCR amplification by following the PCR cycles as reported by Falcone et al.
5 [micro]L Taq polymerase (Premix Taq Polymerase; TaKaRa catalog no.
The PAL gene fragment generated by Taq polymerase with sticky ends provided with 5'--A overhang at the insertion site which is more efficient.
0 lead to absence of amplification and primer dimer formation, respectively Taq polymerase 0.
Humic and fulvic acid are strong magnesium chelating agents, and it is known that Taq polymerase is magnesium dependent.
Trizol RNA isolation reagent was obtained from Invitrogen (Karlsruhe, Germany), reverse transcriptase (murine lymphoma virus RT RNAseH-), random hexamer primers and Taq polymerase, expressed in E.
The 50-[micro]L reaction mixture consisted of 100-300 ng (2-5 [micro]L) template DNA; 10 x Taq polymerase buffer [500 mM KCl, 15 mM Mg[Cl.
The reaction mixture (10 [micro]l) contained l x Taq polymerase buffer (Promega), 1.
Unless otherwise noted, amplification reactions were in a 25-[micro]L volume using a master mix containing 1X Taq polymerase buffer (Promega, Madison, Wis), 0.
In the case of Taq polymerase and other enzymes utilized in the polymerase chain reaction, producer prospects will be largely dependent upon the strength and interpretation of existing patent and licensing laws.