Tarde, Gabriel

Tarde, Gabriel

 

Born Mar. 12, 1843, in Sarlat; died May 13, 1904, in Paris. French sociologist and criminologist.

From 1894 to 1896, Tarde headed a section in the Ministry of Justice. Later he taught and was made a professor of modern philosophy at the College de France in 1900. His sociological theory is pervaded by psychologism. According to Tarde, the psychology of the individual is the starting point of society, and the key processes occurring in society are those of imitation, opposition, and adaptation. Imitation is characteristic of individuals and facilitates their adaptation. Society is made possible by a universal law of repetition. The sole source of progress of society is invention, which is due to individual initiative and new combinations of existing ideas. As a result of imitation, the individual acquires both established norms and values and innovations. Tarde’s ideas were later developed in the theories of the socialization of the personality.

Tarde’s research demonstrated the difference between social psychology and individual psychology. According to Tarde, human beings taken collectively—especially in a crowd—are far more emotional and excitable and less intellectual than human beings taken individually. On the basis of this theory, Tarde was opposed to mass organs of state authority.

Tarde also wrote a number of works on the philosophy of law. His ideas influenced American sociology.

WORKS

La Criminalité comparée. Paris, 1886.
La Philosophic pénale. Paris, 1890.
Les Transformations du droil, 2nd ed. Paris, 1894.
L’Opposition universelle. Paris, 1897.
Etudes de psychologie sociale. Paris, 1898.
Les Transformations dupouvoir. Paris, 1899.
La Psychologie économique, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1902.
L’Opinion et la foule, 4th ed. Paris, 1922.
In Russian translation:
Zakony podrazhaniia. St. Petersburg, 1892.
Prestupleniia tolpy. Kazan, 1893.
Sotsial’naia logika. St. Petersburg, 1901.
Sotsial’nye zakony. St. Petersburg, 1906.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ahora, varios anos mas tarde, Gabriel Vargas plantea una pregunta parecida a la de Revel, aunque en esta ocasion va directamente a la raiz del asunto: Filosofia, ?
En La ruta de su evasion, la instancia narrativa relaciona a Gabriel con la cruz, quizas el simbolo mas universal de Cristo, especificamente, cuando el ingresa en la universidad y debe ser rapado como el resto de los alumnos, pero los estudiantes veteranos, con el fin de hacer mas indecorosa la pelada, le dibujan, con las tijeras, sobre su cabeza, una cruz que comenzaba "en la frente, abria sus brazos en las sienes y moria en la nuca sobre el cuello de la camisa" (Oreamuno 1994: 11); de manera significativa, en la tarde, Gabriel va al barbero para que le quite la cruz y lo deje rapado como a todos los demas.