Tatarstan


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Tatarstan

(tăt'ərstăn`, –stän`),

Tatar Republic

(tä`tər, tətär`), or

Tataria

(tətär`ēə), republic (1990 est. pop. 3,660,000), 26,255 sq mi (68,000 sq km), E European Russia, in the middle Volga and lower Kama river valleys. KazanKazan
, city (1989 est. pop. 1,094,000), capital of Tatarstan, E European Russia, on the Volga. It is a major historic, cultural, industrial, and commercial center. Manufactures include chemicals, explosives, electrical equipment, building materials, consumer goods, and furs.
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 is the capital; other important cities are Almetevsk, Leninogorsk, and Bugulma. The low, rolling plain that makes up most of the republic's territory yields fodder crops, wheat and other cereals, sugar beets, sunflowers, and flax. The republic is a leading Russian oil and natural-gas producer and the starting point for a pipeline to Eastern Europe. There are also important deposits of brown coal, limestone, gypsum, dolomite, and marl. Lumbering and food, leather, oil refining, and fur processing are major Tatar industries. Manufactures include machinery, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The Volga, Kama, Belaya, and Vyatka rivers are important for both transportation and irrigation. There are several hydroelectric stations.

Turko-Tatars make up around 50% of the population, and most live in rural areas. Russians, generally urban, constitute some 40%, and there are Chuvash, Udmurt, Mari, and Mordovian minorities. Sunni Islam is the chief religion.

BulgarsBulgars, Eastern
, Turkic-speaking people, who possessed a powerful state (10th–14th cent.) at the confluence of the Volga and the Kama, E European Russia. The Bulgars appeared on the Middle Volga by the 8th cent. and became known as the Eastern, Volga, or Kama Bulgars.
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 dominated the region from the 8th to 13th cent., when it was conquered by the Mongols of the Golden HordeGolden Horde, Empire of the,
Mongol state comprising most of Russia, given as an appanage to Jenghiz Khan's oldest son, Juchi, and actually conquered and founded in the mid-13th cent. by Juchi's son, Batu Khan, after the Mongol or Tatar (see Tatars) conquest of Russia.
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; their Tatar descendants, in turn, gradually replaced or absorbed the Bulgar population. Russian colonization followed the capture (1552) by Czar Ivan IV of the khanate of Kazan, the most powerful of the Tatar states emerging from the empire of the Golden Horde. The Tatar ASSR was organized in 1920 as one of the first autonomous areas established by the Soviet government. In 1990 a declaration of sovereignty was adopted, and in 1991 the republic declared itself independent. This declaration was recognized by no other state. The republic was not a signatory to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that established the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2005 est. pop. 143,420,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The country is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the west; by Georgia
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), but it signed a power-sharing treaty with Russian government in 1994. Russian legislation (2003) forced a renegotiation of the treaty; a new treaty was finally ratified in 2007.

References in periodicals archive ?
Sanayee also pointed to the export of Iran's dairy products to Russia, and expressed the hope that Tatarstan and other republics on the banks of River Volga would take part in serious trade interactions with Iran.
The long-term mutually beneficial partnership between Turkmenistan and the largest companies of Tatarstan - giant automaker "KAMAZ", OJSC "Tatneft" and other enterprises could serve as an example of the effective use of available opportunities.
Tatarstan is one of Russia's oldest oil producing regions, whose economy is dominated by the fuel, petrochemical and chemical industries.
President of Tatarstan RE-stem Minnihanov and the Prime Minister Ildar Halikov also were ready at the event.
Sultan bin Saeed Al Mansouri, Minister of Economy and Tatarstan President, Rustam Minnikhanov co-chaired the meeting.
Barzani, according to the statement, expressed hope that this visit will be a good omen at the start of a new phase of relations between the Kurdistan Region and the Republic of Tatarstan and benefit from their experiences in various fields.
Due to the fluctuations of the Kuibyshevskoye and Nizhnelamskoye reservoirs on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan about 800 archeological monuments are destroyed annually.
Fattakovh Engel Navapovich, Minister of Education and Science of the Republic said, "Education is a key priority for the Republic of Tatarstan.
Among the victims of the crash in the federal Republic of Tatarstan was the President Rustam Minnikhanov's son Irek.
The Boeing 737 belonging to Tatarstan Airlines crashed about 7:20pm local time on Sunday, an hour after taking off from Moscow.
Le bilan du crash du Boeing russe 737 qui s'est ecrase, dimanche, en tentant d'atterrir a l'aeroport de Kazan, la capitale du Tatarstan (Volga), s'est eleve a 50 morts (l'ensemble des personnes presentes a bord), a declare a la presse la porte-parole du ministere russe des Situations d'urgence, Irina Rossious.