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the totality of physical, physicochemi-cal, and chemical methods used in the analysis of the raw materials and semifinished and finished products used or manufactured by industry. The analyses, methods, techniques, and reagents are established by state standards (GOST) and technical specifications (TU), adherence to which is mandatory for both manufacturer and user. Technical analysis encompasses the control of production processes at various stages according to technical regulations; it also refers to the analysis of industrial wastes, such as flue gases, slags, dust, and waste water.
All the major methods of analysis are used in technical analysis. These include chemical methods (gravimetric, volumetric, and colorimetric), physicochemical methods (electrobalance, Potentiometrie, amperometric, polarographie, and chromatographic), and physical methods (X-ray spectrometric, mass spec-trometric, activation, and magnetic). Technical analysis makes wide use of standard reference materials.
Methods of technical analysis include methods for grading materials by determining the materials’ chemical composition, which should correspond to the preestablished composition of the material, for rapid checks on the chemical composition of materials during a production process, and for the control analysis used when there is a dispute between a manufacturing enterprise and a consumer enterprise concerning the chemical composition of a material. The accuracy of the methods in each of these groups is specified over a given range of percentage content of the element to be analyzed and is expressed in terms of permissible variations in results.