Caroline Affair

(redirected from The Caroline Case)

Caroline Affair.

In 1837 a group of men led by William Lyon MackenzieMackenzie, William Lyon,
1795–1861, Canadian journalist and insurgent leader, b. Scotland; grandfather of William Lyon Mackenzie King. Emigrating to Upper Canada in 1820, he published (1824–34), first at Queenston, then at York (later Toronto), his noted
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 rebelled in Upper Canada (now Ontario), demanding a more democratic government. There was much sympathy for their cause in the United States, and a small steamer, the Caroline, owned by U.S. citizens, carried men and supplies from the U.S. side of the Niagara river to the Canadian rebels on Navy Island just above Niagara Falls. On the night of Dec. 29, 1837, a small group of British and Canadians loyal to the Upper Canadian government crossed the river to the U.S. side where the Caroline was moored, loosed her, set fire to her, and sent her over the falls. One American was killed in the incident. Americans on the border were aroused to intense anti-British feeling, and soldiers under Gen. Winfield ScottScott, Winfield,
1786–1866, American general, b. near Petersburg, Va. Military Career

He briefly attended the College of William and Mary, studied law at Petersburg, and joined the military.
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 were rushed to the scene to prevent violent American action. The affair passed over, though it had an aftermath, when one of the men who had taken part in the attack boasted of that fact when he was in the United States and was arrested as a criminal. That matter, too, was smoothed over, but the Caroline Affair and the Aroostook War helped to make relations with Great Britain very tense in the years before the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
References in periodicals archive ?
104) Most notably, the concept emerged as customary after a series of incursions in 1837, now referred to as the Caroline case.
According to the principles established by the Caroline case, a state invoking self-defense must:
From the Caroline case, four cumulative conditions which govern the existence of the right of a State to use force in the territory of another State in self-defense developed, which are:
Nevertheless, "[i]t was in the Caroline Case that self-defence was changed from a political excuse to a legal doctrine.
It took almost one hundred years for the principles established in The Caroline Case to enter a judicial opinion.
In The Caroline Case, necessity was used as an exception to uncodified custom, and it is unclear whether such a defense would have been valid if the actions taken in The Caroline Case contradicted an express treaty obligation.
15) The Caroline case became important for international law and the norms governing the use of preemptive force, not because states then recognized these norms as binding law in a broad context, but because they were appropriated in the last sixty years under the U.
These requirements derive historically from the Caroline case.
As Secretary of State fifteen years later, Webster again drew on the tradition to determine when a state can use preemptive force in the Caroline case.
Detroit airport-based Tommy Ontko tapped the Spaniard's details into a database after seeing him named by French authorities in a week-old UK newspaper as a suspect in the Caroline case.
The call followed the publication in a local newspaper of a story suggesting a possible link between the Caroline case and the hunt for a rapist wanted for sex attacks committed in West Yorkshire, Nottingham, and Leicester from the early 1980s to 1995.
The French team have been comparing it with the photofit of the main suspect in the Caroline case, which they released in St Malo a week ago today.