Crown

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crown,

circular head ornament, symbolizing sovereign dignity. (For crowns worn by nobles, see coronetcoronet
, head attire of a noble of high rank, worn on state occasions. It is inferior to the crown. British peers wear their coronets at the coronation of their sovereign. Although dukes wore coronets to mark their rank by the 14th cent.
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.) The use of the crown as a symbol of royal rank is of ancient tradition in Egypt and the Middle East. In ancient Greece and Rome, however, crowns—sometimes made of leaves—were merely wreaths, awarded to victors in athletic or poetic contests or bestowed on citizens in recognition of an act of public service. The crown as used in medieval and modern times is an elaboration of the diademdiadem,
in ancient times, the fillet of silk, wool, or linen tied about the head of a king, queen, or priest as a distinguishing mark. Later, it was a band of gold, which gave rise to the crown. In heraldry, the diadem is one of the arched bars that support the crown.
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 and is generally made of metal, often gold inlaid with precious gems. The crown became thoroughly identified with the functions of monarchy, and the term crown is often used in a purely institutional sense, as in crown lands, crown colonies, and crown debt. Among famous crowns of historic interest are the Lombard iron crown, kept at Monza, Italy; the crown of Charlemagne, at Vienna, Austria; and the sacred crown of St. Stephen of Hungary. These are exceptional in that they were used repeatedly over centuries for coronation ceremonies. Most crowns are of recent origin, although the jewels they contain are often taken from older crowns. The ancient crowns of England were destroyed under Oliver Cromwell. There are two crowns used by the British sovereigns: the crown of Edward the Confessor (a much-altered replica of the original crown) is used for the coronation ceremony in Westminster Abbey, and the imperial state crown is worn on state occasions. Crowns are also worn by the consorts and families of sovereigns. The triple crown of the popes, known as a tiara, dates from the 14th cent. Regardless of their actual shape, crowns are usually represented in heraldry as closed at the top by four arched bars called diadems and surmounted by a globe and a cross. In religion and art, a crown symbolizes sovereignty (Rev. 19.12) and also honor, especially the reward of martyrdom (Heb. 2.9).

Crown

Any uppermost or terminal features in architecture; the top of an arch including the keystone; the corona of a cornice, often including the elements above it.

Crown

 

the aboveground (above the bole) branched part of a tree. Under natural conditions different tree species have crowns of different shapes.

Figure 1. Diagram of the structure of the crown of a fruit tree

The following parts are distinguished in the crowns of fruit trees (see Figure 1): (1) the central trunk, or leader, the part of the trunk from the first lower branch to the base of last year’s growth; (2) the leading shoot, the apical growth from the previous year on the central trunk or on the skeleton branches; (3) the primary skeleton branches; (4) the secondary skeleton branches, the large branches making up the framework of the crown; and (5) the lateral (tertiary) branches, small, relatively short-lived branches which cover the skeleton branches and which are divided into vegetative and fruit shoots.

The vegetative shoots are one-year-old branches covered with leaves, also called growths, or leading shoots, since they increase the length of the branches every year and, thus, the size of the crown. The fruit shoots of seed-bearing trees consist of one-year-old growths more than 15 cm long with a flower bud at the apex; straight one-year-old lateral growths, 5–15 cm long; very short annual growths, 2 mm to 2–3 cm long, very fragile, with one well-formed leaf or flower bud; shoots usually 2–3 years old that bore fruit at one time; and perennial forked fruit branches. Amygdalaceous trees have fruit shoots called bouquet twigs (shortened fruit formations, 0.5–3 cm long, with groups of buds at the apex) and spurs (short fruit formations from 0.5 to 8–10 cm long).

There are artificial and natural crowns, and they are shaped taking into consideration their natural peculiarities. Depending on the species of tree, the variety, stock, age, and growth and agrotechnical conditions, crowns are given pyramidal, spherical, spreading, and other shapes. These shapes do not impede soil cultivation in the orchard, permit the fruit to grow well, and ensure the best access to air and light. In decorative horticulture, crowns are given round, spherical, and other shapes. The shaping of tree crowns is begun at an early age.

REFERENCE

Plodovodstvo, 2nd ed. Edited by V. A. Kolesnikov. Moscow, 1966.

V. A. KOLESNIKOV


Crown

 

(1) Headgear symbolizing monarchical authority. Crowns were generally made of precious metal (usually gold) and richly decorated with jewels and pearls. There could be a variety of forms, including tiaras, diadems, caps, wreaths, and circlets with attached leaves, spikes, or plates. Crowns were used in the ancient world (Sumer, Akkad, Egypt, Rome), but they became especially widespread in Western Europe during the period of fully developed feudalism (11th century), when a hierarchy of forms, corresponding to the title of the wearer, was established (for emperors, kings, princes, dukes, counts). The crown also appears as a symbol in heraldry.

(2) A term used in the law of certain monarchies to indicate the authority (prerogatives) of the ruler, as well as those persons designated by him and acting in his name in the civil administration, military, or judicial system (the crown court, ministers of the crown, etc.). The term “crown” is especially widespread in English law.

What does it mean when you dream about a crown?

Success, as in “crowned with success” or one’s “crowning achievement.” Leadership. The “jewel in the crown” is what is most valuable.

crown

[krau̇n]
(anatomy)
The top of the skull.
The portion of a tooth above the gum.
(architecture)
A feature near the top of a terminal, such as the highest point of an arch.
(botany)
The topmost part of a plant or plant part.
(civil engineering)
Center of a roadway elevated above the sides.
In plumbing, that part of a trap where the direction of flow changes from upward to horizontal or downward.
(engineering)
The part of a drill bit inset with diamonds.
The vertex of an arch or arched surface.
The top or dome of a furnace or kiln.
A high spot forming on a tool joint shoulder as the result of drill pipe wobbling.
(lapidary)
The portion of a faceted gem above the girdle.
(metallurgy)
That part of the sheet or roll where the thickness or diameter increases from edge to center.
(mining engineering)
A horizontal roof member of a timber up to 16 feet (4.9 meters) long and supported at each end by an upright.

crown

crown, 9
1. Any upper terminal feature in architecture.
2. The top of an arch including the keystone, or of a vault.
3. The corona of a cornice, sometimes including elements above it.
4. The camber of a beam.
5. The central area of any

crown

headpiece worn as symbol of royal authority. [Western Culture: Misc.]

Crown

a stevedore who deals with people by physical force. [Am. Lit.: Porgy, Magill I, 764–766]

crown

1. monarchy or kingship
2. 
a. History a coin worth 25 pence (five shillings)
b. any of several continental coins, such as the krona or krone, with a name meaning crown
3. the centre part of a road, esp when it is cambered
4. Botany
a. the leaves and upper branches of a tree
b. the junction of root and stem, usually at the level of the ground
c. another name for corona
5. Zoology
a. the cup and arms of a crinoid, as distinct from the stem
b. the crest of a bird
6. Dentistry
a. the enamel-covered part of a tooth above the gum
b. artificial crown a substitute crown, usually of gold, porcelain, or acrylic resin, fitted over a decayed or broken tooth
7. Nautical the part of an anchor where the arms are joined to the shank
8. Architecture the highest part of an arch or vault

Crown

1. the sovereignty or realm of a monarch
2. 
a. the government of a constitutional monarchy
b. (as modifier): Crown property

Crown

(dreams)
A crown made of gold and jewels symbolizes power, honor, and status. It could also symbolize an accomplishment or a passage into higher levels of consciousness or spiritual awareness. When interpreting this dream, pay attention to what kind of crown it is and who is wearing it. This dream may be congratulatory, (i. e., esteem for a job well done). Different types of crowns may have varying meanings; for example, Jesus had a crown of thorns and was a martyr. All crowns are circular, and in that way they bring up issues of completeness and wholeness and point to the center of personality.
References in classic literature ?
Shtcherbatsky and Tchirikov, supporting the crowns and stumbling over the bride's train, smiling too and seeming delighted at something, were at one moment left behind, at the next treading on the bridal pair as the priest came to a halt.
Taking the crowns off their heads the priest read the last prayer and congratulated the young people.
He had never been in the room at the Crown in his lifedid not know the people who kept it by sight.
I was going to observe, sir," said Frank Churchill, "that one of the great recommendations of this change would be the very little danger of any body's catching cold so much less danger at the Crown than at Randalls
yes, monsieur le cardinal, I am well aware I am poor, and yet the crown of France is worth a million, and to perform a good action I would pledge my crown if it were necessary.
Well I don't think that any Jews in the world would lend such a sum, even upon the crown of France.
said some, and others answered, "It is he that hath but now so soundly cracked the crown of Eric o' Lincoln.
Effingham had, from the commencement of the disputes between the colonists and the crown, warmly maintained what he believed to be the just prerogatives of his prince; while, on the other hand, the clear head and independent mind of Temple had induced him to espouse the cause of the people.
While, however, he discharged his functions with credit and fidelity, Marmaduke never seemed to lose sight of his own interests; for, when the estates of the adherents of the crown fell under the hammer, by the acts of confiscation, he appeared in New York, and became the purchaser of extensive possessions at comparatively low prices.
Alphege threw himself into his arms, and the brothers hastened to the royal palace, where in the presence of the entire court he received the crown from his brother's hand.
I kissed the cross, took the crowns and returned to the terrace, and we all made our salaams; again the hand appeared, I made signs that I would read the paper, and then the window was closed.
Gradually the guineas, the crowns, and the half-crowns grew to a heap, and Marner drew less and less for his own wants, trying to solve the problem of keeping himself strong enough to work sixteen hours a-day on as small an outlay as possible.