James Francis Edward Stuart

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Stuart or Stewart, James Francis Edward,

1688–1766, claimant to the British throne, son of James IIJames II,
1633–1701, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685–88); second son of Charles I, brother and successor of Charles II. Early Life
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 and Mary of ModenaMary of Modena
, 1658–1718, queen consort of James II of England; daughter of Alfonso IV, duke of Modena. Her marriage (1673) to James, then duke of York, was brought about through the influence of Louis XIV of France.
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; called the Old Pretender. His birth, falsely rumored by Whigs at the time to be supposititious (i.e., of other parents than professed), helped to precipitate the Glorious RevolutionGlorious Revolution,
in English history, the events of 1688–89 that resulted in the deposition of James II and the accession of William III and Mary II to the English throne. It is also called the Bloodless Revolution.
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 of 1688. He was brought up in France and on his father's death (1701) was recognized there as James III of England. In England, however, the Act of Settlement (1701) had excluded the male line of Stuarts from the succession. His restoration to the British throne was the object of numerous plots and rebellions by the JacobitesJacobites
, adherents of the exiled branch of the house of Stuart who sought to restore James II and his descendants to the English and Scottish thrones after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. They take their name from the Latin form (Jacobus) of the name James.
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. After an abortive invasion of Scotland in 1708, James served in the French army at the battles of Oudenarde and Malplaquet, but in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) Louis XIV was obliged to recognize the succession of the house of HanoverHanover, house of,
ruling dynasty of Hanover (see Hanover, province), which was descended from the Guelphs and which in 1714 acceded to the British throne in the person of George I.
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 to the English throne, and James was forced to leave France. His hopes of succeeding Queen Anne were dashed by the peaceful succession (1714) of the Hanoverian George IGeorge I
(George Louis), 1660–1727, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1714–27); son of Sophia, electress of Hanover, and great-grandson of James I. He became (1698) elector of Hanover, fought in the War of the Spanish Succession, and in 1714 succeeded Queen Anne
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. An uprising in his favor (1715), led by the 6th earl of MarMar, John Erskine, 6th (or 11th) earl of,
1675–1732, Scottish nobleman, leader of the Jacobites. He was nicknamed "Bobbing John," probably because of his political vacillation.
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, brought him to Scotland, but, on the failure of the movement, James retired to France and finally to Rome. In 1719, James married Maria Clementina Sobieski, a Polish princess commonly called Princess Clementina. He did not take part in the Jacobite uprising of 1745, led by his son, Charles Edward StuartStuart or Stewart, Charles Edward,
1720–88, claimant to the British throne, b. Rome. First son of James Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Pretender), he was known as Bonnie Prince Charlie and as the Young Pretender.
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, the Young Pretender.

Bibliography

See biographies by A. Shield and A. Lang (1907), A. N. Tayler and H. A. H. Tayler (1934), and B. Bevan (1967); see also bibliography under JacobitesJacobites
, adherents of the exiled branch of the house of Stuart who sought to restore James II and his descendants to the English and Scottish thrones after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. They take their name from the Latin form (Jacobus) of the name James.
..... Click the link for more information.
.


James Francis Edward Stuart:

see Stuart, James Francis EdwardStuart or Stewart, James Francis Edward,
1688–1766, claimant to the British throne, son of James II and Mary of Modena; called the Old Pretender.
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.
References in periodicals archive ?
A The Old Pretender (James III) B William of Orange C Charles II D The Pope QUESTION 9 - for 9 points: In which year did Joe McElderry win the ITV talent show The X Factor?
FRIDAY, BBC2, 9PM The Stuarts in Exile In 1715, the Old Pretender James Francis Stuart, left, launched an audacious rebellion to reclaim his throne from King George.
A The Old Pretender (James III) B William of Orange C Charles II D The Pope QUESTION 5 - for 5 points: Which country won the 2011 cricket World Cup?
Councillor Peter Douglas Osborn (Con, Weoley), a member of the council's conservation and heritage panel, said: "This building was erected on the last date that the Scots invaded England on behalf of James II's son, the Old Pretender.
The glass is inscribed in diamond point with a crown and cipher, hidden within which is the figure eight, representing James VIII of Scotland, James III of England, the Old Pretender.
It was now 1715 and James - later known as the Old Pretender because of his claim to the throne - saw his chance.
Lord Collingwood was executed in 1716 for his part in the Catholic uprising which aimed to remove the German Protestant King from the throne and replace him with the Old Pretender, James Stuart.
They are engraved with, most commonly, the rose, representing the English crown, and buds either side of it for the Old Pretender - James II''s son, James Francis Edward Stuart - and the Young Pretender - his son, Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie.
1715: James Stuart, the Old Pretender, landed at Peterhead to lead a Jacobite rebellion.
My other ride for Carl is THE OLD PRETENDER in the competitive-looking novice hurdle.
Given his choice, it is unlikely that even the Old Pretender would have chosen the late summer of 1715 as a fortuitous time for an attempt to retake his thrones.
The Invercauld Arms Hotel, which stands on the site where the Earl of Mar raised the standard for the Old Pretender at the start of the 1715 rising.