Themistocles

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Themistocles

(thəmĭs`təklēz), c.525–462 B.C., Athenian statesman and naval commander. He was elected one of the three archonsarchons
[Gr.,=leaders], in ancient Athens and other Greek cities, officers of state. Originally in Athens there were three archons: the archon eponymos (so called because the year was named after him), who was the chief officer of the state; the archon basileus,
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 in 493 B.C. In succeeding years many of his rivals were eliminated by ostracismostracism
, ancient Athenian method of banishing a public figure. It was introduced after the fall of the family of Pisistratus. Each year the assembly took a preliminary vote to decide whether a vote of ostracism should be held.
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 and he became the chief figure of Athenian politics. He persuaded the Athenians to build up their navy, foreseeing that the Persians, defeated at Marathon, would send another and stronger force against Greece (see Persian WarsPersian Wars,
500 B.C.–449 B.C., series of conflicts fought between Greek states and the Persian Empire. The writings of Herodotus, who was born c.484 B.C., are the great source of knowledge of the history of the wars.
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). Xerxes invaded Greece in 480, and military defense of Athens was impossible; Themistocles evacuated the city. Although the Greek fleet was entrusted to a Spartan, Themistocles determined its strategy, thus bringing about the decisive victory of Salamis (480) and the retreat of Xerxes to Persia. A purported copy of Themistocles' decree to evacuate Athens, discovered at Troezen in 1959, indicates that the evacuation, as well as the battle of Salamis, was not hastily planned but was a measure carefully conceived months before to trap the Persians at Salamis. However, many scholars question the authenticity of the document. Despite Themistocles's prominence, in 479 the chief commands went to his rivals, who had previously been recalled from exile to fight the Persians. Themistocles devoted himself to strengthening the navy and the fortifications, especially those of Piraeus. About 471, after his opponents came to power, he was exiled. Ultimately he lived in Persia, where King Artaxerxes made generous provision for him.

Themistocles

 

Born circa 525 B.C.; died circa 460 B.C. Athenian state figure and general during the Greco-Persian Wars of 500–449.

Themistocles was elected archon in 493 and subsequently held the posts of archon and strategus a number of times. By his political reforms in 487 and 486 he furthered the democratization of the Athenian state structure. He introduced the use of lots to select archons and made members of the hippeis, the second highest Athenian census class, eligible for the archonship. He also freed the college of strategi from the control of the Areopagus.

As leader of the naval party, Themistocles attempted to turn Athens into a sea power. He fortified the harbor of Piraeus and built a navy of 200 triremes. His party represented the interests of the merchants, the artisans, and the poor. Themistocles was responsible for the creation of the Delian League in 477. He played a decisive role in organizing the Greek forces to fight the Persians and in leading them to victory. His triumphs over the invaders included the victory at Salamis in 480.

As a result of intrigues by the Athenian aristocracy, Themistocles was ostracized in 471. He was later accused of consorting with the Persians and of communicating secretly with the Spartan general Pausanias. These charges led to his condemnation by the Greek states. After moving from one city to another, he finally took refuge with the Persian king Artaxerxes I. Themistocles died in Magnesia, one of a number of cities in Asia Minor placed under his rule by Artaxerxes.

Themistocles

?527--?460 bc, Athenian statesman, who was responsible for the Athenian victory against the Persians at Salamis (480). He was ostracized in 470
References in periodicals archive ?
But to fend off the Persians, Themistokles must convince the Spartans to fight alongside his ragtag army, and to do this he must gain the consent of the widowed Spartan Queen Gorgo (Lena Headey).
Snyder, who produced and co-wrote the screenplay for "300: Rise of an Empire," recalls, "Frank Miller contacted me and said he was working on an idea about an Athenian general named Themistokles, who led the Greek Navy against the Persian Navy, which was commanded by this amazing woman named Artemisia.
Themistokles (Sullivan Stapleton) hurls the fateful spear that deals King Darius a mortal blow.
Wasn't it Themistokles or somebody who had two hundred warships built from the proceeds?
At Athens such scenes became particularly popular on pottery in the 480s BC and it is likely that this theme is connected both with the famous Athenian charge onto the plain of Marathon in 490 BC to surprise the Persians and with the training set in motion by Themistokles that enabled Athens to defeat the enemy again in 479 BC.
Themistokles, Berlin 1897, Achill, Berlin 1910, und die bereits genannte Nausikaa zahlt Sabine von Mering zu den neoklassischen Dramen, und sie arbeitet heraus, dass auch in diesen Aufnahmen antiker Stoffe die Auseinandersetzung mit zeitgenossischen Gender-Restriktionen zu finden ist.
THE AUTOPSY on the body of the 19-year-old soldier, Themistokles Yiannakakis, serving in the Greek contingent in Cyprus (ELYK), showed the cause of death was an acute heart attack.
lt;<The exile of Themistokles and Denmcracy in the Peloponnese>>, CQ 31, 1981, pp.
Shear noted in 1939, the next layer of road metal above the level through which the horos was set contained ostraka of Themistokles and Hippokrates that may have belonged, according to Thompson and Wycherley, to the ostracism of 482 B.
It is a safe bet, however, that Themistokles was not one of the generals at Marathon, no matter how often John Thorley says so in his short, popular survey of [sup.
Worse, current orthodoxy(1) convicts it of a major chronological blunder for assigning a part in those reforms, which it places securely and beyond doubt correctly in the archonship of Konon (462/1), to Themistokles, who had been ostracized from the city perhaps as early as 473/2 and in any case by 467/6(2).
94) refers to Peisistratos' son Hegesistratos, born of an Argive woman, as a bastard (nothos), although other sources make the Argive woman Peisistratos' properly married wife; similarly, Plutarch (Themistokles, 1) records that Themistokles was a nothos because he had a foreign mother, and then connects this claim with the existence of a group of nothos who exercised at the Kynosarges gymnasium.