Theobroma


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Related to Theobroma: Theobroma cacao

Theobroma

 

a genus of evergreen trees of the family Stercu-liaceae. The plants are found in the lower layer of tropical rain forests in Central and South America. The leaves are simple and entire. The inflorescences of small pentamerous bisexual flowers are characterized by cauliflory—that is, they develop on short shoots on the trunk and large branches. The ovate or elongate fruit has numerous seeds. The fruit of many species has edible pulp, and the seeds are used to produce cocoa and chocolate.

The species having the greatest economic significance is the chocolate tree, or cacao (T. cacao), which is 4–8 m tall. The yellow, orange, or reddish fruits reach 30 cm in length and 10–12 cm in diameter; they weigh 300–600 g and contain 25 to 60 seeds. The chocolate tree has been cultivated since ancient times in many tropical countries. Optimum conditions for its cultivation are a uniform annual precipitation of 2,000–5,000 mm and a mean annual temperature no lower than 21°C. The chocolate tree is propagated by seeds, cuttings, or grafts. It begins to bear fruit in the fourth or fifth year and attains peak productivity in the tenth year. The plant may be grown successfully in hothouses.

REFERENCES

Siniagin, I. I. Tropicheskoe zemledelie. Moscow, 1968.
Zhukovskii, P. M. Kul’tumye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1971.

S. S. MORSHCHIKHINA

References in periodicals archive ?
Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a anatomia das folhas de Theobroma speciosum, registrando as diferencas estruturais observadas em exemplares localizados em pastagem (folhas de sol) e na floresta ombrofila densa (folhas de sombra), visando avaliar sua capacidade adaptativa para a implantacao de estrategias de conservacao in situ e ex situ.
Alfen has secured the contract to develop a sustainable end-to-end energy installation for Theobroma.
While some natural populations of Theobroma species are protected in conservation units, such as the Juruena Nation Park, other populations face increasing pressure from forest fragmentation and exploitation.
Comments: Blumilight is a theobroma extract from a sustainable cocoa from Peru.
Medias de la incidencia (%) y abundancia (numero de insectos por 100 foliolos por planta) de gusano cachon (Erinnyis ello) en diferentes sistemas de siembra (S): [Hevea brasiliensis (S1: 2,5 x 3,0 x 14,0 m; S2: 2,5 x 3,0 x 13,0 m; S3: 2,8 x 4,0 x 10,0 m; S4: 2,8 x 7,0 m); Theobroma grandiflorum y Musa AAB: 4,0 x 5,0 m para los sistemas S1, S2 y S3] para seis epocas pluviometricas en dos zonas de Caqueta (Colombia).
For species with recalcitrant/intermediate behavior, there are some studies evaluating the physical and/or biochemical characteristics that are linked to physiological quality, such as Euterpe edulis (Pizo, Von Allmen, & Morellato, 2006), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Khan, 2004), and Theobroma cacao (Rangel-Fajardo et al.
Se utilizaron semillas de cacao extraidas de mazorcas sanas y maduras de arboles de cacao, del municipio de Huimanguillo, Tabasco (Mexico), de la especie Theobroma cacao L.
Anklam, "Review on polyphenols in Theobroma cacao: changes in composition during the manufacture of chocolate and methodology for identification and quantification," Food Research International, vol.
Variabilidad morfoagronomica de 50 materiales promisorios de tres especies de Theobroma (Malvaceae) en condiciones de la amazonia colombiana.
Theobroma cacao (cocoa) is a rich source of phytochemicals with polyphenols and alkaloids being predominant.