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(thûr`mĭdôr, Fr. tĕrmēdôr`), 11th month of the French Revolutionary calendarFrench Revolutionary calendar,
the official calendar of France, Nov. 24, 1793–Dec. 31, 1805. Its introduction was decreed by the Convention on Oct. 5, 1793, but it was computed from Sept. 22, 1792, the autumnal equinox and the day after the proclamation of the republic.
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. The coup of 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794) marked the downfall of RobespierreRobespierre, Maximilien Marie Isidore
, 1758–94, one of the leading figures of the French Revolution. Early Life

A poor youth, he was enabled to study law in Paris through a scholarship.
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 and the end of the Reign of TerrorReign of Terror,
1793–94, period of the French Revolution characterized by a wave of executions of presumed enemies of the state. Directed by the Committee of Public Safety, the Revolutionary government's Terror was essentially a war dictatorship, instituted to rule the
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. The men who came into power were members of the old bourgeoisie and the newly rich who had profited from speculation and inflation. Extravagance in dress and manner prevailed. The JacobinsJacobins
, political club of the French Revolution. Formed in 1789 by the Breton deputies to the States-General, it was reconstituted as the Society of Friends of the Constitution after the revolutionary National Assembly moved (Oct., 1789) to Paris.
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 were suppressed, but the royalists did not gain power. The Thermidorians removed economic controls, thus unleashing inflation, and established some freedom of worship. The principal figures in the so-called Thermidorian reaction included BarrasBarras, Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de
, 1755–1829, French revolutionary. Although of a noble family, he joined the Jacobins in the Revolution and was a member of the Convention.
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 and TallienTallien, Jean Lambert
, 1767–1820, French revolutionary. A law clerk and later a printer, he became known through his Jacobin journal, Ami des citoyens. A leader in the attack (Aug.
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. The period ended with the establishment of the DirectoryDirectory,
group of five men who held the executive power in France according to the constitution of the year III (1795) of the French Revolution. They were chosen by the new legislature, by the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients; each year one director, chosen
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See A. Mathiez, The Thermidorian Reaction (1929, tr. 1930).



the 11th month of the year according to the republican calendar that was in effect in France from 1793 to 1805. Thermidor corresponded to the period from July 19/20 to August 17/18.

References in periodicals archive ?
Lobster Thermidor is a French dish consisting of a creamy mixture of cooked lobster meat, egg yolks, and cognac or brandy, stuffed into a lobster shell.
After that, a reign of terror, that is followed by a Thermidor period.
6) Bronislaw Baczko astutely observed that 9 Thermidor was "an event in search of its meaning" and so traced the ways in which the Convention progressively repudiated the Terror.
King prawn thermidor Ingredients: (serves four), 1/2 oz rice, 1 oz white crab meat, 2oz butter, 4 king prawns, tablespoon olive oil, half an onion, 1 clove garlic, 1 pint fish stock, 1/4 pint of double cream, pinch of saffron, 1 teaspoon of English mustard, 1/2 oz parmesan, a pinch salt and a pinch pepper Method: Cook rice until tender, sit in bottom of ramekin then add white crab meat.
The spiciness of the lobster thermidor was tempered by the cream sauce which was neither heavy nor excessive.
Historians of revolutionary movements focus on 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794), when Maximilien Robespierre was guillotined and the Reign of Terror ended.
It boasts its own First Class Pullman train carriage and a dining conservatory, as well as a no-need-to-book fish bar, and has for years been a mecca for the local racing fraternity, who are attracted by such delights as gigas oysters from Cork, and monkfish, salmon and tiger-prawn thermidor on buttered spinach.
Kidd's dancing imagination then settled on the character, Monsieur Thermidor, a lobster, who runs an underwater restaurant famed for its seaweed soup.
Pan-fried foie gras followed by lobster thermidor and spotted dick & custard.
highlights lobster thermidor, shark's fin soup and prime rib.
Additionally, Desan sees the drift away from revolutionary theory and practice as a reaction to the revolution beginning under Thermidor.