Thetes


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Thetes

 

in ancient Athens, the fourth and lowest census group of citizens, according to the reform of Solon. The thetes were preceded in rank by the pentakosiomedimnoi, the hippeis, and the zeugitai.

The thetes were made up of citizens with property producing less than 200 medimnoi of grain (1 medimnos = approximately 41–52 liters); they included small landowners, tenant farmers, farm workers, day laborers, and the poor. The thetes were exempt from taxation. They served in the army as soldiers bearing light arms and in the navy as sailors or rowers; they also performed noncombat service. The thetes had the right to take part in the popular assembly and to sit on juries.

Under Themistocles, Pericles, and Cleon, the thetes assumed a more important role in political affairs and the military; this change was brought about by the further democratization of the Athenian state and by the growing importance of the navy. By the fourth century B.C., the thetes were in practice allowed to hold government posts. In the Homeric era (11th to ninth centuries B.C.) the term thetes was applied to impoverished citizens who had lost their ties to their clan and community.

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Y a los thetes no se les permitia responsabilizarse ni acceder a ningun cargo.
Aunque Solon no habia previsto un derecho de voto pasivo para la poblacion mas pobre, los thetes en la practica se constituyeron como un grupo capacitado para tomar acuerdos.
Los thetes tambien tuvieron la oportunidad de formar parte de los tribunales de justicia, que en tiempos de Solon constituyeron la primera instancia de apelacion.
Pero mas alla de esta diferencia terminologica, es posible plantear que pelatai y thetes eran los atenienses de mas baja condicion y, aparentemente, de donde provendria la mayor parte de los hectemoros (11).
Esta pervivencia, sin embargo, lejos de suponer el mantenimiento de una situacion de dependencia, implico, por el contrario, la integracion de los thetes a la ciudadania en la mas baja de las clases del sistema timocratico instaurado por Solon a la cual se le reconocieron ciertos derechos a la participacion politica (Plu.
4c) utiliza thetes y pelatai como sinonimos de hektemoroi; cf.
Los caballeros prestaban su servicio militar en la caballeria, los zeugitas en el cuerpo de hoplitas (73), y los thetes, los ciudadanos mas pobres de Atenas, servian como marineros o tropa ligera.
Primero, Solon, realizo una clasificacion de los ciudadanos basada en la propiedad o tierra cosechada; a partir de esta, podemos hablar de los pentacosiomedimnos, los caballeros, los zeugitas, y los thetes.
This is the case of the Parthenias and Minias episodes in Sparta, the Argive situation of douloi after Sepeia (related with the Hybristika) and the integration of thetes in Peisistratid time; the tyrant is associated with the Dionysia and with Kronos, the reversal god.
v, son los propios atenienses de baja extraccion social, recientemente y a duras penas integrados en la ciudadania con Solon, thetes y antiguos hektemoros, quienes se encuentran en peligro de ser expulsados de la misma y, ademas tambien, como consecuencia de ello, de caer en esclavitud (13).
La Politeia de Aristoteles parece pues identificarse con la antigua democracia, que seria la Democracia de los hoplitas, la que se habia establecido en el periodo arcaico como una politeia controlada por quienes poseian la chora de la ciudad, de la que los thetes no participaban.
203), and he must have been aware that his lecture gave some backing to the arguments of Symbolists such as Syrnons and Yeats about the need to liberate poetry from what Symons called "exteriority," "rhetoric," and "a materialist tradition," (21) arguments given the more urgency at this time by the fact that--in the era of Kipling, Austin, and Watson- popular taste increasingly preferred the "public moralist" to the "private aes thete.