Third Element

Third Element

 

a term, popularized in the 1900’s, referring to members of the intelligentsia of no particular class who were hired to serve in zemstvo (local self-government) institutions as agronomists, statisticians, technicians, doctors, veterinarians, teachers, and insurance agents.

The “third element” was distinguished from the “first element, ” which was composed of officials appointed to zemstvo organizations by the government, and from the “second element, ” which was made up of members elected to the zemstvo assemblies. Numbering between 65,000 and 70,000 people in 34 provinces in the late 19th century, the third element included a considerable number of bourgeois liberals, Narodniks (Populists), and even Social Democrats.

The third element was largely responsible for the far-reaching successes of the zemstvo institutions, especially in the fields of medicine, sanitation, and education. The tsarist administration and the conservative dvoriane-zemtsy (noblemen who were members of zemstvo organizations) opposed the strengthening of the role of the third element.

References in periodicals archive ?
The third element is the Hairpin, which is ideal for long, slow drifts.
At Level Two conflict, you are still present, but you are angry now, and the problem is still there and you begin to consider the former third element "others" as part of the problem not worthy of your value or respect.
But Burgin adds a third element in the form of a beautiful young Asian woman who appears occasionally, reading silently from a little red book.
The third element involved years of assay standardization, replication of results in multiple laboratories, and comparisons with in vivo results.
The third element, the earthwork, then addresses the space between the two masses, and consists of a mound that undulates in resonance with the distant hills to the south.
The third element requires the agencies to make sure there are opportunities for small businesses to bid for subcontracts and to team up or form joint ventures to compete for bundled contracts.
The third element is Bridgestone's flow oriented approach (FOA), which employs autonomous information processing to manage the system.
Yet, in the end, the third element is the most permanent part of his achievement.
The universal power sensor's first element covers the +20 to -3 dBm power input range, the second element covers -3 to -20 dBm and the third element covers -20 to -60 dBm.
Finally, the third element of the International Bill of Rights--a machinery of enforcement--came to be through the establishment in 1966 of the Human Rights Committee and the subsequent establishment in 1985 of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights.
With the essentials disposed of, Bernstein turned his attention to the third element in a kitchen, lights that add glitter and interest to the overall ambient light.