Thomas Alva Edison


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Acronyms, Wikipedia.

Edison, Thomas Alva

 

Born Feb. 11,1847, in Milan, Ohio; died Oct. 18, 1931, in West Orange, N.J. American inventor in electrical engineering, the owner and founder of major electrical engineering companies.

Edison was a descendant of Dutch immigrants. After receiving a primary education, he began working at the age of 12 as a newsboy and later as a telegraph operator. Having made his home in Newark, N.J., he produced his first invention in 1868 and opened a workshop where his devices were manufactured. Between 1869 and 1876, Edison designed a number of original devices, including the stock ticker. He also worked on multiplex telegraphy and improved the typewriter.

In 1876, Edison moved to Menlo Park, N.J., where he resided until 1887. At Menlo Park, he established a major laboratory with workshops. During this period, he improved A. Bell’s telephone and, in 1877, invented the phonograph. In 1879 he proposed and introduced a commercially practical incandescent lamp. He also invented various electrical devices, such as the screw socket and base for electric lamps, the electric fuse, a rotary switch, and the electric meter. In addition, Edison carried out experiments on the electrification of railroads and developed a magnetic method of ore separation. In 1883 he discovered thermionic emission, which is known as the Edison effect. Edison also designed electric generators that were the most powerful of their day. In 1882 the world’s first DC electric power plant designed to provide power to the public was built in New York City according to his specifications.

In the late 1880’s, Edison established a number of major concerns for the production and sale of electric machines and equipment, lighting equipment, and incandescent lamps. His concerns also operated the electric power plants and telegraph stations that he had built in the USA and Europe.

From 1887 until his death, Edison resided in West Orange, N.J., where he headed his “invention factory.” During this period, he improved the phonograph and the motion-picture camera. He also invented a device that was the prototype of the dictating machine, equipment for recording telephone conversations, a railroad brake, and the nickel-iron battery.

WORKS

The Diary and Sundry Observations. New York, 1948.

REFERENCES

Lapirov-Skoblo, M. Ia. Edison. Moscow, 1960.
Bel’kind, L. D. Tomas Al’va Edison. Moscow, 1964.

G. K. TSVERAVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Overall, The Wizard of Menlo Park brings into sharp and dramatic focus the extent to which modern society and its patterns of mass leisure are indebted to the inventions of Thomas Alva Edison.
When Thomas Alva Edison died in 1931, President Herbert Hoover asked his countrymen to turn off their lamps for a moment in a widespread silent tribute to this great American.
The YEO and the Edison Preservation Foundation teamed up to create the YEO Thomas Alva Edison Award for Innovation to honor YEO members for their innovative contributions to society.
For example, students should know and admire Thomas Alva Edison.
Thomas Alva Edison took occupancy in a new and grandiose laboratory.
Chief among those who put electricity to work for the masses was Thomas Alva Edison.
In 1957 he won the Thomas Alva Edison Foundation award for Building Blocks of the Universe and in 1960 the Howard W.
And as an associate of inventor Thomas Alva Edison, he supervised installation of electric lights in New York, Philadelphia, Montreal and London.
Dorr began his career in the laboratories of Thomas Alva Edison at the age of 16.
In trying to perfect a thing," Edison wrote in his diary, published as The Diary and Sundry Observations of Thomas Alva Edison, "I sometimes run straight up against a granite wall a hundred feet high.
The awards are named after Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) whose inventions, new product development methods and innovative achievements literally changed the world, garnered him 1,093 U.
The Edison Awards[TM], named after Thomas Alva Edison, are dedicated to recognizing excellence in development, human-centered design and innovation, marketing, and the launch of new products and services.