The keynote speaker at the conference, Erik Thorbecke
, described African conditions pre-2000 as a 'migration of misery' with workers pushed out of agriculture, rather than being pulled to more productive non-agricultural employment.
Voluntary ex ante transparency notice: sale leasehold agreement for the redevelopment of the thorbecke
However, careful studies like Thorbecke
(2005) and Banerjee and Duflo (2006) show that this does not happen.
and Zhang (2006) estimate that the Sino-U.
, "The Evolution of the Development Doctrine and the Role of Foreign Aid, 1950-2000: in Finn Tarp and Peter Hjertholm (ed), Foreign Aid and Development: Lessons Learnt and Directions for the Future (New York, Routledge, 2000).
Nagler-Anderson C, Bober LA, Robinson ME, Siskind GW, Thorbecke
alpha] indexes (Foster, Greet, and Thorbecke
, 1984, 2010)--like the headcount index, the depth or the severity index--originally measured poverty based on economic entities that are poor in the sense of having an income below a certain income level.
van Eickels, born inszenierten Konsens zum systematisierten Konflikt: Die englisch-franzosische Beziehungen and ihre Wahrnehmung an der Wende unto Hoch-zum Spatmittelalter (Stuttgart: Thorbecke
, 2002); Conflict in Medieval Europe: Changing Perspectives on Society and Culture, ed.
Their daughter, Sonya Stokowski Thorbecke
, provides special memories.
Were China to adopt an exchange-rate regime characterized by a multiple-currency, basket-based reference rate with a reasonably wide band - a policy first proposed by Willem Thorbecke
of the Asian Development Bank Institute - the huge surpluses generated within Asia's production networks would cause the region's currencies to appreciate together, instead of putting pressure on just one or two, as is happening today.
Mathias Beer and Dittmar Dahlmann (Stuttgart: Thorbecke
, 1999), 151-57; Detlef Brandes, Von den Zaren adoptiert: Die deutschen Kolonisten und die Balkansiedler in Neurussland und Bessarabien, 1715-1914 (Munich: Oldenburg, 1993), 94; Andreas Gestrich, "German Religious Emigration to Russia in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries," in In Search of Peace and Prosperity: New German Settlements in Eighteenth-Century Europe and America, ed.
Numerous empirical studies (eg, Thorbecke
and Smith, 2010; Garcia-Herrero and Koivu, 2007) estimated China's export elasticity to real exchange rates and concluded that the yuan's appreciation would give rise to a significant decrease in China's exports, thus reducing China's trade surplus substantially.