Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.


(tĭmo͝or`) or


(tăm`ərlān), c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He was the son of a tribal leader, and he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz KhanJenghiz Khan
or Genghis Khan
, Mongolian Chinggis Khaan, 1167?–1227, Mongol conqueror, originally named Temujin. He succeeded his father, Yekusai, as chieftain of a Mongol tribe and then fought to become ruler of a Mongol confederacy.
..... Click the link for more information.
. With an army composed of Turks and Turkic-speaking Mongols, remnants of the empire of the MongolsMongols
, Asian people, numbering about 6 million and distributed mainly in the Republic of Mongolia, the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China, and Kalmykia and the Buryat Republic of Russia.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Timur spent his early military career in subduing his rivals in what is now TurkistanTurkistan
or Turkestan
, historic region of central Asia. Western, or Russian, Turkistan extended from the Caspian Sea in the west to the Chinese frontier in the east and from the Aral-Irtysh watershed in the north to the borders of Iran and Afghanistan in the south.
..... Click the link for more information.
; by 1369 he firmly controlled the entire area from his capital at SamarkandSamarkand
, city (1991 pop. 395,000), capital of Samarkand region, in Uzbekistan, on the Trans-Caspian RR. It is one of the oldest existing cities in the world and the oldest of Central Asia.
..... Click the link for more information.

Campaigns he waged against Persia occupied him until 1387. By that time he had in his possession the lands stretching E from the Euphrates River. He advanced (1392) across the Euphrates, conquered the territory between the Caspian and Black seas, and invaded several of the Russian states. By weakening the Crimean Tatars he helped clear the way for the conquests of the grand duchy of Moscow. Timur abandoned some of his Russian conquests to return to Samarkand and invade (1398) India along the route of the Indus River. He took Delhi and brought the Delhi SultanateDelhi Sultanate,
refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India (1210–1526). It was founded after Muhammad of Ghor defeated Prithvi Raj and captured Delhi in 1192.
..... Click the link for more information.
 to an end, but he withdrew with little addition to his domain.

In 1400, Timur ravaged Georgia and proceeded to the Levant, where he took Aleppo and Baghdad. His next war was fought in Asia Minor against the Ottoman Turks, and in 1402, at Angora, he captured their sultan, Beyazid I, who, contrary to popular belief, was well treated. Timur died while planning an invasion of China. His tomb at Samarkand was long known to archaeologists, but it is only recently that his skeleton, buried in a deep crypt, was found.

Timur's reputation is that of a cruel conqueror. After capturing certain cities he slaughtered thousands of the defenders (perhaps 80,000 at Delhi) and built pyramids of their skulls. Although a Muslim, he was scarcely more merciful to those of his own faith than to those he considered infidels. His positive achievements were the encouragement of art, literature, and science and the construction of vast public works. He had little hope that his vast conquests would remain intact, and before his death he arranged for them to be divided among his sons. The TimuridsTimurids
, dynasty founded by Timur (or Tamerlane). After the death of Timur (1405) there was a struggle for power over his empire, which then extended from the Euphrates River to the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and Indus rivers.
..... Click the link for more information.
 are the line of rulers descended from him. Christopher Marlowe's play Tamburlaine luridly recounts his conquests.


See biographies by H. Hookham (1962) and B. F. Manz (1989); J. H. Sanders, tr., Tamerlane (tr. of late 14th-century Arabic work by A. Ibn Arabshah, 1936).

References in periodicals archive ?
Timur found time amidst his constant nonstop campaigning to write his own history, the Tuzuk-i-Timuri, in which he justified massacres in Muslim lands as 'killing bad Muslims' and in non-Muslim lands as 'slaying infidels'.
And she said, Timur, "a man who loved big things," was so pleased that he rewarded the calligrapher handsomely.
Timur the Lame made Attila the Hun look like Mother Teresa.
Timur Kulibaev is #894 (#988 in 2014) on 2015 Forbes Billionaires List and #3 in Kazakhstan.
While I was still crying in the room on February 3, Bharati, Dr Timur and their aides forcibly took me inside the operation theatre and did something to me.
The Timur and the Dime Museum, where tenor Timur Bekbosunov performs, is in Los Angeles.
YEREVAN -- Eumir Felix Marcial, the 2011 AIBA World Junior champion, celebrated his debut in the World Youth Championships with a 15-14 win over Kazakhstan National Youth titlist Timur Pirnazarov, Friday at Karen Demirchyan Sports Complex here.
com)-- RteamKz and its website, PDF Search books, with owner, Timur Karipov, are pleased to announce a more advanced website search tool to make location much easier.
At the time, KMG's board chairman was Timur Kulibayev, a son-in-law of Nazarbayev.
A bizarre premise becomes a dull, disjointed slog on the big screen, even with the directorial brio of Kazakhstan-born film-maker Timur Bekmambetov, who encountered the creatures of the night in his special effects-laden hits Night Watch and Day Watch.
The quake is centered at 82 kilometer southeast of Luwu Timur, South Sulawesi, at the depth of 10 kilometer," ANTARA quoted spokesman to the National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) Sutopo Purwo Nugroho as saying today.