Timurids

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Timurids

(tĭmo͝or`ĭdz), dynasty founded by TimurTimur
or Tamerlane
, c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He was the son of a tribal leader, and he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz Khan.
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 (or Tamerlane). After the death of Timur (1405) there was a struggle for power over his empire, which then extended from the Euphrates River to the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and Indus rivers. The western empire, which included Tabriz and Baghdad, lasted only a few years because of internal wars. The so-called Black Sheep Turkmen horde brought it to an end when they took (1410) Baghdad. Shah Rukh, Timur's son, ruled (1409–46) the eastern empire, including Khorasan and Transoxiana (region E of the Amu Darya, or Oxus, River). He fought the Black Sheep and succeeded in recapturing Tabriz and much of W Persia. His domain was the focal point of trade between the East and the West, and it attained a spectacular prosperity. Because all the Persian cities were desolated by previous wars, the seat of Persian culture was now in Samarkand and Herat; these cities became the center of the Timurid renaissance. This cultural rebirth had a double character; on one hand, there was a renewal of Persian civilization and art (distinguished by extensive adaptations from the Chinese), and on the other, an original national literature in the Turk-Jagatai language, which borrowed from Persian sources. Shah Rukh was succeeded by his son, Ulugh Beg (ruled 1447–49). He had earlier been (1409–47) viceroy of Transoxiana. He constructed many public buildings and was a patron of Persian art and literature; he made Samarkand a center of Muslim civilization. After his succession (ruled 1447–49) to the throne the Timurid empire fell into anarchy; the Turkmen horde known as the White Sheep conquered much territory, while the Uzbeks looted Samarkand. Petty princes took over the rule, and local dynasties sprang up. One of these princes, and the last of the Timurids, was BaburBabur
[Turk.,=lion], 1483–1530, founder of the Mughal empire of India. His full name was Zahir ud-Din Muhammad. A descendant of Timur (Tamerlane) and of Jenghiz Khan, he succeeded (1494) to the principality of Fergana in central Asia.
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Timurids

 

a dynasty that ruled in Maveraun-Nahr, Khwarizm, Khorasan, and other territories from 1370 to 1507.

The Timurid dynasty was founded by Tamerlane, who divided the state among his sons and grandsons while he was still alive. After Tamerlane’s death, the Timurids declared themselves independent sovereigns and began an internecine struggle for supreme power. In the early 15th century two empires were in fact formed. One was ruled by Tamerlane’s youngest son, Shah Rukh (1409–47), and was centered in Herat (Khorasan), and the other was ruled by Shah Rukh’s son Ulug Beg and was centered in Samarkand.

In 1447, after his father’s death, Ulug Beg became ruler of the entire Timurid state. After his death, however, the dynastic struggle resumed. During the reign of Shah Sultan Husayn (1469–1506), culture flourished in Herat. By the early 16th century the domains of the Timurids, which had been weakened by feudal wars, fell into decay and during the reign of the sons of Sultan Husayn were conquered by the Uzbeks. One of the Timurids, Zahir al-Din Muhammad Baber (1483–1530), founded the Great Mogul Dynasty in India in 1526; this dynasty existed until 1858.

REFERENCE

Bartol’d, V. V. “Ulugbek i ego vremia.” Soch., vol. 2, part 2. Moscow, 1964.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Timurid dynasty was a Sunni Muslim Persianate dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage, which ruled over modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary Pakistan, Syria, India, Anatolia.
Timur (from the Perso-Arabic form Timur, ultimately from Chagatai (Middle Turkic) Temur "iron"; 8 April 1336 -- 18 February 1405), also known as Tamerlane (from Ty1/2mE1/2r-e Lang), was a 14th-century conqueror of much of western and central Asia, founder of the Timurid Empire and Timurid dynasty (1370--1405) in Central Asia, and great grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived until 1857 as the Mughal Empire of India.
AoThe codex is believed to have been produced in northern India during the Timurid dynasty of the 15th and 16th centuries.
Following the decline of the Timurid dynasty, other cities in the area rose to prominence, including Bukhara, which was at one time the intellectual centre of the Islamic world.
Shaybani Khan brought down the Timurid dynasty and established Uzbek rule in its place.
The Turkish homeland in which Babur lived was a land of the Turks that belonged to the West Turkistan Timurid state; what brought an end to the Timurid dynasty was the Uzbek state.
The central importance of Persian culture for architecture and the arts in general of the period is emphasised here, Timur, also known as Tamerlane, who founded the Timurid dynasty created magnificent new buildings and monuments, drafting architects, artists and stone masons In their thousands from Iran and India to build in Samarkand which was made Timur's new capital.