Tiranë


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Tiranë

(tērä`nə) or

Tirana

(tērä`nä), city (1989 pop. 238,057), capital of AlbaniaAlbania
, Albanian Shqipëria or Shqipnija, officially Republic of Albania, republic (2015 est. pop. 2,923,000), 11,101 sq mi (28,752 sq km), SE Europe.
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 and of Tiranë dist., central Albania, on the Ishm River. It is the largest city and the chief industrial and cultural center of the country. Tiranë is located on a fertile plain that yields a variety of agricultural products. Its manufactures include metal products, agricultural machinery, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. After 1990 (the end of Communist rule), new industries sprang up in scattered locations around the city. Lignite is mined nearby. A railroad and highway link Tiranë with the port city of DurrësDurrës
, Ital. Durazzo, city (1989 pop. 82,719), capital of Durrës dist., W Albania, on the Adriatic Sea. The chief seaport of Albania and the leading commercial and communications center, it has a dockyard, a shipyard, and industries that manufacture leather,
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, its chief outlet. The center of the city is Scanderbeg Square, with the government buildings and the 18th-century mosque of Etchem Bey. The bazaar and the mosque of Sulayman Pasha are nearby. The city has a university (founded 1957) and the institute of sciences of Albania. The population of Tiranë is mostly Muslim.

Tiranë was founded in the early 17th cent. by the Turkish general Sulayman Pasha, who is buried there. It was originally named Tehran, for a Turkish victory in Persia. The larger part of Tiranë was built after 1920, when it was selected as the capital of Albania. A new residential quarter was built under Italian rule (1939–43), and an industrial sector was developed after World War II. On Jan. 11, 1946, the Communist government of Enver HoxhaHoxha, Enver
, 1908–85, Albanian Communist leader and general. A founder (1941) of the Albanian Communist party (Albanian Labor party from 1948), Hoxha headed the radical resistance group in Italian-occupied Albania during World War II.
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 was proclaimed there. In the early 1990s, Tiranë was rocked by massive and often violent demonstrations that forced the Communist government to institute substantial political and economic reforms. Since the end of the Communist dictatorship the city has experienced enormous population growth.

Tirana

, Tiranë
the capital of Albania, in the central part 32 km (20 miles) from the Adriatic: founded in the early 17th century by Turks; became capital in 1920; the country's largest city and industrial centre. Pop.: 390 000 (2005 est.)