Tirso de Molina


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Molina, Tirso de:

see Tirso de MolinaTirso de Molina
, pseud. of Fray Gabriel Téllez
, 1584?–1648, outstanding dramatist of the Spanish Golden Age, b. Madrid. His fame rests on El burlador de Sevilla (1630; tr.
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Tirso de Molina

(tēr`sō dā mōlē`nä), pseud. of

Fray Gabriel Téllez

(gäbrēĕl` tĕl`yĕth), 1584?–1648, outstanding dramatist of the Spanish Golden Age, b. Madrid. His fame rests on El burlador de Sevilla (1630; tr. The Love Rogue, 1924), the earliest known literary version of the Don Juan legend. Among the 300 or 400 plays by Tirso de Molina are El vergonzoso en palacio [the bashful man at the palace], La prudencia en la mujer [prudence in a woman], El condenado por desconfiado (tr. The Saint and the Sinner, 1954), Marta la piadosa [pious Martha], and El castigo del pensé que (tr. by James Shirley as The Opportunity, 1640). He also wrote short novels, included in his prose collection Los cigarrales de Toledo (1621). He joined the Mercedarian monks in 1601 and wrote a history of the order (1637–39). His dramas, influenced by Lope de Vega, excel in wit and sympathetic characterization.

Tirso de Molina

 

(pen name of Gabriel Téllez). Born 1571 or circa 1583 in Madrid; died Mar. 12, 1648, in Soria. Spanish dramatist.

Tirso de Molina studied at the University of Alcalá de Henares. He held high positions in the monastic Mercenarian order and became the historian for the order in 1632. His first published book, Villas of Toledo (1621), is similar to the genre of the pastoral romance; united by a general plot, it comprises several short prose works and three plays, including A Bashful Youth in the Palace (1605–06). The collection To Delight While Being of Use (1635) is a pious antithesis to Villas of Toledo. Between 1627 and 1636, Tirso de Molina published five collections of plays. The preface to the third collection indicates that he had written 400 plays. Approximately 90 have survived; however, the authorship of a number of them remains in dispute.

Tirso de Molina wrote several plays on historical themes, such as The Luck of Don Alvaro de Luna and the Unhappy Fate of Ruy Lopes d’Alvalos (1615–21, published 1635) and Woman’s Wisdom (1630–33, published 1634). Some of his plays deal with biblical subjects, for example, Tamara’s Revenge and More Is Less (1614, published 1627), and with hagiography, notably a trilogy on the life of St. Juana. Other works include religious and philosophical dramas, the best known being The Doubted Damned (1614–15 [?], published 1634), and autos (one-act allegorical dramas). Tirso de Molina also wrote comedies, in which he combined plots typical of cloak-and-sword plays—the classic example being Don Gil Greenpants (1615, published 1635)—with profound psychological insight, as in Jealous of Herself.

Tirso de Molina developed the principles of Renaissance drama established by L. F. de Vega Carpió. At the same time, however, his works belong to the baroque age. They reflect the end of the humanists’ faith in man’s nature and express disillusionment with love as an elevated emotion ennobling the soul and with honor in the sense of unconditional devotion to the good of society. His plays express all the artificiality and deceptiveness of life. Observing the general social disharmony and moral decline in Spain, Tirso de Molina, like many of his contemporaries, turned to religion as a means of improving morals.

The best-known drama by Tirso de Molina is The Scamp of Seville, or The Stone Guest (El Burlador de Sevilla y convivado de pietra, 1619–20 [?]; published 1630), which is based on a folk tale of a young roué who insults a dead man and pays dearly for his blasphemy. Its hero, Juan Tenorio, is the first Don Juan in world literature. In the interpretation of Tirso de Molina, he is a skeptic and a thorough egoist; endowed with a destructive mind, he rejects morality entirely.

In Russia, the works of Tirso de Molina became popular in the late 19th century.

WORKS

Obras dramáticas completas, vols. 1–3. Madrid, 1946–58.
Obras. Madrid [1970]. (Biblioteca de autores españoles, vol. 236.)
In Russian translation:
Komedii, vols. 1–2. [Moscow, 1969.] (Introductory article by V. Siliunas.)
Toledskie villy. Moscow [1972]. (Preface by N. Tomashevskii.)

REFERENCES

Krzhevskii, B. A. Stat’i o zarubezhnoi literature. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960.
Nougué, A. L’oeuvre en prose de Tirso de Molina. Toulouse, 1962.
Maurel, S. L’univers dramatique de Tirso de Molina: Thèse. [Paris] 1971.

S. I. EREMINA

References in periodicals archive ?
Con esto consiguio reunir las doce primeras comedias de Tirso que, ademas de vender en suelta, ofrecio al publico en forma de parte ese mismo ano (Parte primera de comedias verdaderas del Maestro Tirso de Molina, 1734) tal y como senalo Bushee, quien ha estudiado detenidamente las particularidades de este volumen facticio:
2) Comedias of the Early Modern era that deal with the American theme include Lope de Vega, El nuevo mundo descubierto por Colon, El arauco domado, La conquista de Cortes (record of but not in existence today), La Araucana (auto sacramental), El marques del Valle, El Brasil restituido; Tirso de Molina, Todo es dar en una cosa, Amazonas en las indias, La lealtad contra la envidia; Calderon de la Barca, La Aurora en Copacabana; Ricardo de Turia, La belligera espanola; Gaspar de Avila, El gobernador prudente; Luis Belmonte Bermuez et al.
La otra pieza analizada en este capitulo es El amor medico, de Tirso de Molina.
Social and Literary Satire in the Comedies of Tirso de Molina.
Fray Gabriel Tellez, a Mercedarian monk, wrote El vergonzoso en palacio under the pseudonym Tirso de Molina around 1605-6.
One scholar lists 1,720 published variants on the theme since Tirso de Molina printed The Trickster of Seville in 1630, in the middle of the Thirty Years War.
Margaret Greer muestra en su articulo "Perspectivas tragicas sobre la historia: La casa de David en el siglo XVII" que "la idea de incompatibilidad de la tragedia y la fe cristiana" (117) en el teatro aurisecular no es tan cierta, pues aunque exista la esperanza de un cielo y la redencion, muchas veces se dramatiza el sufrimiento humano general, esto lo percibe al analizar Los cabellos de Absalon de Calderon de la Barca y La venganza de Tamar de Tirso de Molina, obras que dramatizan lo sucedido con los hijos de David.
que presenta la misma; por ultimo las loas y bailes surgen a partir de la edicion de la comedia Amor y celos hacen discretos de Tirso de Molina, y del Parnaso espanol
El articulo muestra de que manera Tirso de Molina en la comedia La santa Juana uso el Libro de Conorte escrito por la monja Juana de la Cruz (1481-1534) con el proposito de poner en escena las estrategias empleadas por la monja para legitimar la autoridad de las revelaciones que esta incluia en su libro.
1) En todo caso, Blanca de los Rios se destaco como investigadora, ganando un premio de la Real Academia Espanola por su vida de Tirso de Molina, y siendo felicitada por Emilia Pardo Bazan en el Nuevo Teatro Critico de agosto de 1891.
Tirso de Molina en su Historia general de la Orden aprueba el apoyo a ultranza a los Pizarro de fray Francisco de Bobadilla, vicario del Peru y mediador en los enfrentamientos entre Pizarro y Almagro.
The Achillean hero in the plays of Tirso de Molina.