Tissaphernes


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Tissaphernes

(tĭs'əfûr`nēz), d. 395 B.C., Persian satrap of coastal Asia Minor (c.413–395 B.C.). He was encouraged by Alcibiades (412) to intervene in the Peloponnesian War in support of Sparta. Out of favor with Cyrus the YoungerCyrus the Younger,
d. 401 B.C., Persian prince, younger son of Darius II and Parysatis. He was his mother's favorite, and she managed to get several satrapies in Asia Minor for him when he was very young.
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, he rebuilt his fortunes by siding with Artaxerxes II and helping him to defeat Cyrus in the battle of CunaxaCunaxa
, ancient town of Babylonia, near the Euphrates River, NE of Ctesiphon. It was the scene of a battle (401 B.C.) between Cyrus the Younger and Artaxerxes II, described by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
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 (401). He pursued the retreating Greek allies (the Ten Thousand) and treacherously murdered ClearchusClearchus
, d. 401 B.C., Spartan officer, celebrated as the leader of the Ten Thousand. Sent in 410 to govern Byzantium, he made himself unpopular by his harsh discipline, and Alcibiades took the city in 408 B.C.
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 and four other Greek leaders (XenophonXenophon
, c.430 B.C.–c.355 B.C., Greek historian, b. Athens. He was one of the well-to-do young disciples of Socrates before leaving Athens to join the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) that was in the service of Cyrus the Younger of Persia.
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). Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus were the chief figures in Artaxerxes' reign. After Tissaphernes asserted supremacy over the Ionian cities, he was involved in war with the Spartans, and Agesilaus IIAgesilaus II
, c.444–360 B.C., king of Sparta. After the death of Agis I (398? B.C.), he was brought to power by Lysander, whom he promptly ignored. After the Peloponnesian War the Greek cities in Asia Minor had not been ceded to Persia despite Sparta's promises, and in
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 defeated him in 395. He was removed from office and assassinated.
References in periodicals archive ?
As he draws his dagger Tissaphernes in Otway's Alcibiades (1675) says "this dagger I as firmly hold" will do him "right" (1.
Tissaphernes goes on to remark that only the most desperate of men--in fact, the 'wicked' ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])--would act in that way, and he goes on to repeat with a different formulation the contrast for good measure: 'through false oaths to the gods and faithlessness to men' (An.
Their arrows penetrated through shields and corselets) and for the Greeks the "seven days spent in traversing the country of the Carduchians had been one long continuous battle, which had cost them more suffering than the whole of their troubles at the hands of the king and Tissaphernes put together.
The topics include Xenophon's wicked Persian Tissaphernes, Darius I in Egypt, the philosopher's Zarathushtra, and early European visitors to the ruins of Persepolis.
Before the turn of the century, another prominent member of this clan, Alcibiades, having fled Sparta where he had been hatching plots against his own city Athens, entered the service of Tissaphernes, now inciting the Greek cities of Asia Minor to revolt against Athens.
At Sparta," Plutarch tells us, "he was devoted to athletic exercises, was frugal and reserved; in Ionia, luxurious, gay, and indolent; in Thrace, always drinking; in Thessaly, ever on horseback; and when he lived with Tissaphernes the Persian satrap, he exceeded the Persians themselves in magnificence and pomp.
The geographical going-up of Cyrus and his army of Persians and Greek mercenaries turned out to be a moral, political, and psychological going-down: Cyrus was killed at the battle of Cunaxa in 401; the Persians in his force abandoned the Greeks and went over to Artaxarxes; and the five main Greek commanders (including Clearchus, Proxenus, and Meno), together with twenty other officers, were murdered shortly thereafter through the treachery of the Persian commander Tissaphernes.
If he came to Tissaphernes, lieutenaunt of the mightie king of Persia: he farre exceeded the magnificence of Persia in pompe and sumptuousnes.
The parallel at least suggests a kinship between the two schemes, both of which employ roundaboutation to achieve their ends: Alcibiades, having failed to persuade Tissaphernes to come over to the Athenians, covered his failure by manoeuvring the Athenians into breaking off negotiations.
sent to Asia Minor with Lysander (396), and concluded a truce with the satrap Tissaphernes before raiding into Phrygia (central Turkey); raised a force of cavalry, and ravaged both Lydia (east central Turkey) (spring 395) and Phrygia; recalled to Greece (394), he took the overland route and avenged the defeat and death of Lysander with a notable victory over Corinth and her allies at Coronea (fall?
However that may be, he in the end personally conducted his force to meet Thibron at Pergamos, and (it seems generally agreed) joined the latter's campaign against the Persian Tissaphernes as commander of the veterans of the long march.
According to Ktesias (F Gr H 688 F52), Tissaphernes had also crushed another revolt against the same king.