Tohono O'Odham

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Tohono O'Odham

(tōhō`nō ō-ō`dəm) or


(păp`əgō', pä`–), Native North Americans speaking a language that belongs to the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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) and that is closely related to that of their neighbors, the PimaPima
, Native North American tribe of S Arizona. They speak the Pima language of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic family (see Native American languages). There are two divisions, the Lower Pima and the Upper Pima.
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. The probable ancestors of both the Pima and the Tohono O'Odham were the HohokamHohokam
, term denoting the culture of the ancient agricultural populations inhabiting the Salt and Gila river valleys of S Arizona (A.D. 300–1200). They are noted for their extensive irrigation systems, with canals over 10 mi (16 km) long that channeled water to
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 people. They were a semisedentary tribe who farmed corn, beans, and cotton and gathered wild vegetable products (e.g., the beans of the mesquite and the fruit of the giant cactus). Although farming remains the major economic activity of the Tohono O'Odham, many now are engaged in cattle raising. The women are known as excellent basket makers. The Tohono O'Odham formerly suffered dreadful depredations from their enemy, the Apache. They were early visited by Spanish missionaries, including Father Eusebio KinoKino, Eusebio Francisco
, c.1644–1711, missionary explorer in the American Southwest, b. Segno, in the Tyrol. He was in 1669 admitted to the Jesuit order. A distinguished mathematician, he observed the comet of 1680–81 at Cádiz, publishing his results in his
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 in 1694. In the 1860s they joined with the Pima and Maricopa in helping the United States to force a peace with the Apache. By an executive act of 1874 the United States created a reservation for the Tohono O'Odham in S Arizona; another was created in 1917. Today they live on these and on Pima and Maricopa reservations as well, all in Arizona. In 1990 there were close to 17,000 Tohono O'Odham in the United States; many others live in Sonora, Mexico.


See R. M. Underhill, Social Organization of the Papago Indians (1939, repr. 1969); J. Waddell, Papago Indians at Work (1969); B. Fontanta, Of Earth and Little Rain: the Papago Indians (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
O'odham secondary stress is accounted for in this way by proposing the morpheme-to-stress principle, a constraint requiring that each morpheme be stressed This is true, as long as rhythmic considerations against clashes and lapses are respected The morpheme-to-stress principle provides an optimality-theoretic account of this interesting metrical asymmetry between derived and underived words in Tohono O'odham and offers an account of other types of morphological stress systems.
San Xavier Mission, which continues to serve the spiritual needs of the Tohono O'odham (Desert People) Indians of the San Xavier reservation, was named in honor of Padre Kino's patron saint, a Jesuit missionary who died in the Orient and whose body survived the long voyage home without the slightest sign of decomposition, a factor that led to his canonization in 1622.
Since the directors of Desert Survivors have a long history of developing human services on a number of reservations in the Southwest and the tribal support for this project was unanimously approved, the state VR agency generously committed to developing vocational services for the disabled tribal members of the Tohono O'Odham Nation.
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When more than one or two employees need to know the ins and outs of a new technology, Chuck Wiese, general manager at Tohono O'odham Utility Authority (Sells, Ariz.
This project will provide services throughout the Tohono O'odham Reservation using fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) and fixed wireless broadband.
When Lizard Rock Designs, LLC, first approached the design process for Tohono O'odham Assisted Living Elder Homes, it was literally unlike anything the company had experienced before.
WASHINGTON -- The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona today formalized an agreement to develop a Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI)-compliant Enhanced Tribal Card (ETC)--signed by U.
The Tohono O'odham people believe that the peak is the center of the universe.
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The land had belonged to the Tohono O'odham and Hia-ced O'odham people, then called "Papagos" and "Sand Papagos," respectively, after a Pima word meaning roughly "bean eater.